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1

endochondral ossification

preformed in hyaline cartilage model
1. blood vessels grow around edges of cartilage
2. cells of PERICHONDRIUM convert to osteoblasts
3. shaft of cartilage is ensheathed in layer of bone
4. vessels penetrate cartilage
5. osteoblasts produce bone at primary ossification center
6. bone formation spreads
7. remodeling occurs as growth continues
8. capillaries and osteoblasts migrate into epiphyses to create secondary ossification centers

2

what give bones their distinct shapes in endochondral ossification

numerous secondary ossification centers

3

diaphysis and epiphysis in endochondral ossification

epiphysis filled with spongy bone
epiphysis side creates cartilage
diaphysis side creates bone when osteoblasts invade and replace cartilage with bone

4

characteristics of bone

highly metabolic tissue
consumes oxygen
capable of repair
constantly being remodeled

5

bone as a mineral bank

calcium and phosphorus used for metabolic processes are mobilized from bone

6

markings on bone

every mark has a reason--something either pulling or pushing on bone to create mark

7

arteries and veins of bones

epiphyseal artery and vein
metaphyseal artery and vein
diaphysis: nutrient artery and vein, and periosteal arteries and veins

8

what causes pain when injury to bone

nerve supply to periosteum

9

long bone

humerus and femur

10

short bone

carpus and tarsus

11

flat bone

skull

12

irregular bone

vertebrae

13

sesamoid bone

patella
bones formed within a tendon to allow ease of motion

14

wormian bone

bone found in sutures of the skull

15

divisions of the skeleton

appendicular and axial skeleton

16

appendicular skeleton

upper limbs
lower limbs
limb girdles

17

axial skeleton

skull and associated bones (auditory ossicles, and hyoid)
vertebral column
thoracic cage

18

hyoid

only bone that has no articulation with other bone (not connected to a joint)

19

neurocranium

part of skull housing brain

20

splanchcranium

part of the skull associated with the face

21

cervical vertebrae

7 but 8 cervical nerves
transverse foramina

22

thoracic vertebrae

12
articulations for ribs
giraffe

23

lumbar vertebrae

5
largest bodies
pointed transverse processes
moose

24

sacral and coccygeal

5 sacral (fused) and 3-5 coccygeal (fused)
intervertebral foramina for nerves to exit

25

features of typical vertebrae

vertebral arch formed by pedicles and lamina
thick supporting body
inferior and superior articular processes
transverse process
spinous process
inferior and superior articular facet where adjacent vertebrae connect (covered in hyaline cartilage)

26

where do spinal nerves exit

intervertebral foramen

27

atlas

C1
yes vertebrae
carries weight of skull
no body
transverse foramen
transverse ligament that attaches it to dens on C2

28

axis

C2
no vertebrae
small vertebral body with dens sticking up where transverse ligament holds it to C1

29

thoracic cage

sternum and ribs

30

sternum

3 parts:
manubrium (top)-- where clavicles attach
body (long middle part)
xiphoid (bottom pointed part)