Lecute 7/8 Biosynthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecute 7/8 Biosynthesis Deck (30):
1

Heterotrophs use ______molecules as carbon sources which often also serve as energy source

Organic

2

Autotrophs use ______ as their sole or principal carbon source

Carbon dioxide

3

Phototrophs use ______ for energy source

Light

4

Chemotrophs obtain energy form _____ of chemical compounds

Oxidation

5

Lithographs use _______ for electron source

Reduced inorganic substances

6

organotrophs obtain electrons from _______

Organic compounds

7

Fermentation

- Oxidation of NADH produced by glycolysis
- Pyruvate or derivative used as endogenous electron acceptor
- Substrate only partially oxidized
- Oxygen not needed
- Oxidative phosphorylation does not occur (ATP formed by substrate level phosphorylation)

8

Pyruvate can have turn into lots of end products but what do they all have in common

They are electron acceptor

9

The main method to make ATP by a strict anaerobe is by the _____

EM pathway

10

Triglycerides are hydrolyzed to ____ and ____ by lipases

Glycerol and fatty acids

11

Glycerol is degraded via _____

Glycolytic pathway

12

Fatty acids often oxidized via ______ pathway

Beta-oxidation

13

The majority of microorganism known are what nutritional types

- Photolithoautotrophs
-Chemoorganoheterotrophs (majority of pathogens)

14

What 3 classes of nutritional types have ecological importance

- Photoorganoheterotrophs
- Chemolithoautotrophs
- Chemolithotrophs

15

Microbial metabolism impacts our lives in many ways. Explain?

- The metabolic waste products of microorganism so are used by humans
- Waste products contribute to disease in humans
- Metabolic processes that are unique to microbes are potential targets for anti microbial drugs

16

Despite diversity of energy, electron, and carbon sources used by organisms, they all have the same basic needs, which are

- ATP as an energy currency
- Reducing power to supply electrons for chemical reactions
- Precursor metabolites for biosynthesis

17

May microorganisms change nutritional type

Yes (some have great metabolic flexibility based on environmental requirements) ( this provides a distinct advantage if environmental conditions change frequently)

18

most respiration involves use of an

Electron transport chain

19

As electrons pass through the electron transport chain to the final electron acceptor, a _______ is generated and used to synthesize ____

A proton motive force (PMF), ATP

20

In aerobic respiration the final electron acceptor is _____

Oxygen

21

In anaerobic respiration the final electron acceptor is

- Different exogenous acceptor such as (NO3-, SO(4)^2-, CO2, Fe^3+, or SeO4^2-
- organic acceptors may also be used

22

In respiration ATP is made primarily by

Oxidative phosphorylation

23

Fermentation uses an _____ electron acceptor

Endogenous (usually an intermediate of the pathway used to oxidize the organic energy source e.g. Pyruvate

24

Does fermentation involve the use of an electron transport chain or the generation of a proton motive force

NO

25

Fermentation synthesizes ATP only by

Substrate level phosphorylation

26

Most pathways generate ____ or _____ of the pathways used in glucose metabolism

Glucose or intermediates

27

Catabolic pathways

- Enzyme catalyzed reactions whereby the product of one reaction serves as the substrate for the next
- pathways also provide material for biosynthesis
- Amphibolic pathways

28

Amphibolic pathways function as

- Function as both Catholic and anabolic pathways

29

What an the important Amphiboic pathways

- EMbden-Meyerhof pathway
- Pentose phosphate pathway
- Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle

30

Carbon source often provides ___, ___, and ____

H, O, and electrons