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Flashcards in Lee Deck (19):

What is self aggrandisement

Self effacement

Bragging about personal achievements

Not making your self noticeable trying not to get noticed


Individualist vs collectivist cultures

Emphasises individual goals can succeed by themselves

Emphasises family and work group goals above individual needs an desires



To investigate lying and truth telling if there's a difference etween cultures
If this change between ages of 7-11



Chinese children- 40-7 yr olds, 40 9 year olds, 40 11 yr olds all from hangzhou

Canadian- 36- 7yrs, 40 9 yr olds, 32 11 yr olds all from Brunswick


Why use Chinese ppts

Government requires schools to promote honesty and modesty
Report misdeeds by themselves , not to unrepresent themselves not to cheat and steal avoid bragging
Confessing misdeeds is encouraged


Canadian ppts

White lies to avoid embarrassment is tolerated
Self aggrandisement not considered a flaw to enhance self esteem
Confess to misdeeds is encouraged



Tested individually
Would listen to either 4 stoical stories or 4 physics, stories the condition they were in were randomly allocated
Each story - read first half , which describes the child committing good or bad deed
Asked- was what ...... Did good or bad
The child would respond to question using a 7 point systems
He child would then read the second half whereby the character would either lie or tell the truth
Ppts were asked a second question - was what ..... Do good or naughty


Explain 7 point rating system

Very very good 3 , very good 2 , good 1, neither 0 , naughty 1, very naughty2 , very very naughty 3



Stories - one or two orders to counterbalanced to reduce order effects , the meaning of the symbols on the chart related to each child each time the question was asked - so they understood it and didn't just pick any one
Negative and positive meanings were alternated so child didn't just pick first one


Example of physical and social stories

P- would take pages out of s book
S- someone would either get hurt or helped



4 conditions
- physical or social - truth telling - pro social
Pro social - lie telling - physical or social
Anti social - truth telling - physical or social
Antisocial - lie telling - physical or social


Similarities between cultures - findings

No difference in order stories
No gender difference
Both cultures always saw good deeds a s good and bad deeds as bad
Both cultures - approved of truth telling in antisocial situations
Both approved that if you did something naughty you should tell truth about it


Research method

Iv - ethnicity and age main ones naturally occurring
Cross cultural
Good way of increasing representation of sample by identifying whether behaviour is seen in all people regardless of culture
Snapshot - data collected from all participants in one go were able to see if different ages gave different responses by making study cross sectional



Giving children a seven pint rating scale which was converted into quantitative data so it could be analysed this was to see if moral thinking between cultures so if Canadian children did see lie telling in a pro social situation as more positive than Canadian children

Qualitative - responses to why - they gave specific answers



All ethical guidelines adhered to as lee explicity thanks to participants get children , parents and schools for cooperation and support consent given



Tried to control as many things as possible e.g same age, sex, same place reduced participant variables
Contact with researchers can be seen as different
May affect response participants give
Standardised procedure stories similar equal terms of gender , randomly allocated to each of the two orders no bias
Randomly allocated to pro social or anti social condition use of counterbalancing to control, order effects



Standardised procedure inclusion of 8 stories researchers used in investigation make it possible for study to be replicated
Large number sample large enough to establish consistent effect



All from similar backgrounds e.g cities were provincial capitals even gender split generalisable to both genders
All from urban areas doesn't reflect behaviour of children from rural areas



Tried to avoid being ethnocentric questions whether procedure would be perceived in same way children from both cultures
Would Canada represent behaviour of all western cultures and China represent all cultures of eastern cultures