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Flashcards in Individual Differences - Baron Cohen Deck (24):

What is ceiling effect

Point at which participant cannot not reach. Higher score e.g on a test although they have the capability to do so e.g on a test Sally Ann test for example just because they could pass a test for six year olds doesn't mean they have theory of mind


Sally Ann test -

Investigate if high functioning adult with autism or Asperger would be impaired in theory of mind test called the eyes task
Wanted to develop a new theory of mind test


Why Tourette's participants used

All childhood set on disorders that cause disruption to normal school etc
Have strong genetic basis which involve abnormality of the brain


What is theory of mind

Ability to understand yours and others state of mind to know people have different opinions to you and be able to use empathetic understanding to enjoy meaningful oplay


Condition / group 1

High functioning autism 13 males 3 females , mean 28.6 years 18-49
To help create test for autism in adults
Variety of clinical sources and adults from communication magazine
Volunteer sampling


Condition 2 normal adults

DCondition 2 normal adults
25 male 25 female mean 30 years 50
18-48 normal intelligence randomly selected rom a subject panel held in uni department


Condition 3

Tourette syndrome 10
8 female 2 males
Mean 27.77
18-41 normal iq
Recruited from tertiary referral centre London



Tested individually
In a quitter room or at home
The researcher clinic or in lab at university
There were 4 tasks which were always given in a random order


Results eye task

Shown 25 pictures for 3 seconds they had to choose from 1 or 2 mental states that eyes portrayed in picture foil pair concerned and unconcerned were always 10 x 15 black and white from magazine
A- 16.3 n- 20.3 t- 20.4 males - 18.8 females - 21.8
Have slight defect in theory of mind


Gender recognition task

See if ps could identify the facial cue of gender it was a control task score out of 25 same sets of eyes used in eye task state gender of person in each photo - no difference show testing theory of mind not other difficulties


Basic emotion

Ps could detect basic emotion it was a control task , pictures of whole faces one of 6 emotions happy, sad, angry, afraid, disgust surprise
No differences


Happe strange stories task

Normal condition couldn't do this task
Ps read stories which incorporated white lies, lie figure of speech and irony, p has to say why the character did what they did used to check validity of eyes task test for concurrent validity no mistakes made by normal and Tourette's but autistic had slight difficulty


Research method

Quasi naturally occurring iv participants normal , autistc, aspergers, Tourette's
Independent measures design mad similar all had same iq
Inclusion of two control groups to see extent of autism and aspergers effecting theory of mind



E.g eyes test out of 25 results to be compared Cross conditions to extent aspergers and autism effect theory of mind



Harm given options wouldn't be stressed, may have been concerned that were given wrong answers,
Allowed to withdraw
Not made clear op if debriefed



Controls me and age and intelligence levels rule out possible extraneous variables inclusion of Tourette's syndrome make sure not just fact neuropsychiatric disorder that caused lack of theory of mid day.
Happy strange stories - concurrent validity ensuring measuring theory of mind
Oder effects - tests in 4 random orders quiet room control and peer pressure as noise to reduce extraneous variables


Ecological validity

Simpler demands than real life facial expressions even though static images made more ecoligically valid not all same location lacks validity



Only 8 people used in eyes test
Two groups of normal people 25 males 25 females , minimum number required for minimum effect established
When comparing eyes task couldn't really compare aspergers and autism not argue enough to to establish effect



All cam from UK
Obtained through range of sampling method
Attempts made to match participants in different conditions



Could apply to multiply different people not culture not ethnocentric
Vacation in culture with amount of time I which people experience recognising emotion e.g Muslim women don't make he contact don't have problems


Link to key theme

Understanding disorders
People with autism and allergens have impairments when it comes to theory of mind


Extent chnGes our understanding of understanding disorders

No conceptual framework for understanding disorders Freud - understanding disorders by looking at unconscious kevel of thinking e.g fears, fantasies and phobias
Baron Cohen looking at disorders if autism in terms of how we are different in theory of mind


Changes understanding of individual social and cultural diversity

Adds to individual understanding Freud - phobias individual can experience baron Cohen tell us about autistic spectrum disorders that other individual can experience
Cultural - UK baron Cohen , Freud Austria doesn't change understanding autistc is not affected by culture


Comparison with classic study

Similarities -
Both understanding disorders
In both some of data collected in home setting
Both strides assumed all had same intelligence
Baron Cohen already given diagnosis
Bc quantitative , f qualitative