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Flashcards in Leg, Foot & Ankle Deck (105)
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What do you call the common accessory bone of the talus?

why does it form?

Os trigonum.  unfused posterior process (lateral tubercle)


What attaches to the posterior process of the talus?

Posterior talofibular ligament. It attaches to the lateral tubercle of the posterior process


What runs in the posterior process of the talus?

Tendon of FHL - between lateral and medical tubercles


What structure wraps directly under the sustentaculum?

FHL tendon


What runs in the sinus tarsi? Name all structures.

Interosseous talocalcaneal ligament (cervical ligament)

artery of tarsal sinus

(artery of tarsal canal runs in the canal, which is the continuation of the sinus)


Describe the blood supply to the talus. What is the main supply?

all 3 terminal arteries:

posterior tibial a. (MAIN SUPPLY) - deltoid branch to BODY, artery of tarsal CANAL

dorsalis pedis a.--branch to dorsal head/neck, contributes to artery of tarsal SINUS

perforating peroneal a. - contributes to artery of tarsal SINUS - supply head/neck, lateral body


What is the Lisfranc ligament?

Interosseous portion of the oblique ligament from medial cuneiform to 2nd MT base


What are the components of the Lisfranc ligament? which is the strongest one? weakest?

Dorsal (weakest), plantar and interosseous (strongest)


What is the Chopart joint?

The midtarsal joint, comprising the talonavicular & Calcaneocuboid joints


What are the ligamentous components of the ankle syndesmosis?



Interosseous membrane (IoM)

Interosseous ligament (IoL)

Inferior transverse ligament (ITL) (really just the distal fibrocartilagenous component of the PITFL)


What are the components of the deltoid ligaments of the ankle?

Superficial: - Tibionavicular & Tibiocalcaneal

Deep: - Anterior & posterior tibiotalar


What is an Os Navicular? What are the types?

Accessory navicular. Type 1: Sesamoid within the distal part of the tendon

Type 2: Attachment to the posterior tibialis tendon, separated by synchondrosis

type 3: enlargement of navicular


What benign structure can often be confused with a Lisfranc Injury?

Os metatarsum


What is an os metatarsum?

Accessory bone found between the medial cuneiform and 1st/2nd metatarsals


What are the plantar layers of the foot?

4 layers:

1st: - Abductor hallucis brevis - Abductor digiti minimi - Flexor digitorum brevis , plantar fascia

2nd: - Quadratus plantae - Lumbricals , FHL and FDL tendons

3rd: - Flexor hallucis brevis - Flexor digiti minimi brevis - Adductor hallucis

4th: - Dorsal interossei - Plantar interossei (also tendons of per longus and tib post)


What are the muscles in the dorsal intrinsic compartment of the foot?

Extensor hallucis brevis Extensor digitorum brevis


What is the Master Knot of Henry? Why is it important?

which of the two structures is dorsal/volar?

Crossing between the FHL and FDL in the foot

Important as dividing it allows access to the deeper layers of the foot and because it can be a site of graft harvest (either FHL or FDL tendon transfers)

FHL is dorsal to FDL



What are the compartments of the foot and their key structures?


Calcaneal: quadratus plantae, posterior tibial NAV, lateral plantar NAV, +/- medial plantar nerve


Interosseous x4 - each has an interossei


Full length:

Superficial: FDB, lumbricals, FDL tendons +/- medial plantar nerve

Medial: FHB, AbH

Lateral: AbDQ, FDM


What are the borders and contents of the tarsal tunnel?

Floor: medial talus, sustentaculum tali, medial calcaneal wall Roof: Lacinate ligament (flexor retinaculum) Contents: TP, FDL, PT artery, vein, Tibial nerve, FHL "Tom Dick And Very Nervous Harry"


What is Baxter's Nerve? What is it's clinical significance?

1st branch of the lateral plantar nerve It runs obliquely on top of quadratus plantae It's a cause of medial heel pain if impinged (dDx of plantar fascitis)


Where does the Plantaris tendon insert? be specific.

Medial to the achilles tendon. It may be a part of the achilles tendon but it will still be on the medial side


What structures combine to form the Sural Nerve?

Medial and lateral sural cutaneous nerves Lateral: branch of common peroneal nerve Medial: branch of tibial nerve


What does the Sural nerve run with? On which side is the nerve?

Runs with short saphenous vein and it is lateral to it


Where does the superficial peroneal nerve pierce the fascia and become subcutaneous?

10-12cm proximal to the tip of the lateral malleolus


What parts of the talus articulate with the calcaneus?

Anterior, middle and posterior articular surfaces


Describe the posterolateral approach to the Ankle:

Position: Prone or supine w/ large bump Incision: posterior border of fibula, centered around fracture


Plane: FHL (tibial) & peroneal muscles (sup. peroneal)

can also go anterior to peroneals depending on target anatomy


Dangers: Do not take off PITFL (devitalizes segments), Sural nerve


Describe the posteromedial approach to the ankle:

Position: supine Incision: 10cm longitudinal anteriorly curved incision Plane:  pick optimal interval:

Tibialis posterior & flexor digitorum longus (both tibial) OR

FHL and NV bundle OR

FDL and NV bundle


Dangers: posterior tibial artery and vein, tibial nerve


Describe the anterior approach to the ankle:

Position: supine Incision: 15cm incision over ankle joint, between the 2 malleoli, beginning 10cm proximal to ankle joint Plane: EHL & EDL (both deep peroneal) Dangers: Superficial peroneal nerve, Neurovascular bundle


Where does the neurovascular bundle of the anterior compartment of the leg run above and below the ankle joint level?

Bundle includes deep peroneal nerve and anterior tibial artery

Above joint, runs between EHL and tib-ant. At the joint, crosses behind extensor hallucis longus then below, it runs between EHL and EDB (EDB is bit more medial than EDL)


What is the innervation of peroneus tertius?

Deep peroneal nerve