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Flashcards in Thigh & Knee Deck (124)
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1

What is the anteversion of the femoral neck?

15-20 degrees

2

What is the articularis genu?

Small muscle on the anterior aspect of the distal femur deep to vastus intermedius

O: anterior surface of distal femur, deep to vastus intermedius

I: synovial membrane of knee

I: femoral nerve

A: pulls the suprapatellar bursa superiorly during knee extension, preventing impingement of the bursa between patellar and femur

3

What innervates adductor Magnus?

Obturator & sciatic (tibial portion)

4

What are the origins and insertions of biceps femoris?

O: Long head: ischial tubeosity (with semitendinosus) Short head: lateral linea aspera, lateral supracondylar ridge

I: fibular head, LCL, lateral tibial condyle

5

What comprises the conjoint tendon of the thigh?

Long head of biceps femoris & semitendinosus

6

Name the insertion sites of semimimbranosus:

Posterior medial tibial condyle, under MCL

Oblique popliteal ligament

Posterior oblique ligament

Posterior joint capsule

Posterior horn of medial meniscus

Expansion to aponeurosis of Popliteus

7

What are the borders of the adductor canal? Its contents?

Lateral: vastus medialis

Medial: sartorius

Floor: adductor longus/Magnus

Contents:

Femoral artery and vein

Femoral nerve branches: saphenous & nerve to vastus medialis

8

What vessels are included in the Cruciate anastamosis? Where is it located?

1st perforating branch of the profunda femoris (main)

Medial femoral circumflex artery

Lateral femoral circumflex artery

Inferior gluteal artery

Located at the inferior margin of quadratus femoris

9

What degree is the tibial slope?

8-10 degrees posterior

10

What is the average thickness of the largest sesamoid bone in the body?

23-25mm Note: in TKA, it should not be cut to a thickness of less than 12-15mm as this increases the risk of patellar fracture

11

Describe the anatomic axis of the femur and tibia?

A line that runs down the intramedullary canal of the femur and tibia, respectively

12

How do you measure Q-angle? What are normal values in men and women?

Angle between a line from ASIS to the patellar centre and another extending proximally from tibial tubercle through patellar centre Normal: Men: 14 degrees Women: 17 degrees

13

Name the 12 ligaments of the knee:

there are more than 12:

 

ACL

PCL

LCL

MCL

MPFL

Arcuate ligament

Oblique popliteal ligament

Retinacular ligament

Coronary ligament

Wrisberg ligament

Humphrey ligament

Transverse ligament

posterior oblique ligament

popliteofibular ligament

(ligamentum mucosum is not a ligament - misnomer - it is a plica)

14

Which ligaments of the knee contribute to the fibrous capsule of the knee posteriorly?

Medially: Oblique popliteal ligament: semimimbranosus to posterior wall of capsule

Laterally: Arcuate ligament: Y-shaped fibres from fibular head, popliteal muscle to the posterior capsule - Also, LCL contributes to joint capsule

15

Which ligaments of the knee have attachments to the menisci?

 

MCL

Coronary ligament: peripheral menisci to capsule/tibia

Transverse: aka anterior intermeniscal ligament

Wrisberg: behind PCL from posterior lateral meniscus to medial femoral condyle

Humphrey: in front of PCL from posterior lateral meniscus to medial femoral condyle

16

Which parts of the ACL and PCL are tight in flexion? Extension?

Tight in flexion: PCL: anterolateral ACL: anteromedial

Tight in extension: PCL: posteromedial ACL: posterolateral

17

When is the ACL tightest?

In extension

18

Name the layers of the medial aspect of the knee and each layer's contents:

Superficial:

Anterior: medial patellar retinaculum from vastus medialis

Medial: deep fascia of the thigh (Sartorius)

Posterior: deep fascia of the thigh (Gastroc/popliteus)

Middle:

Anterior: MPFL

Superficial MCL

Posterior: tendon of semimembranosus

Deep:

Joint capsule

Deep MCL

19

What are the layers of the lateral aspect of the knee and their contents?

Superficial:

Deep fascia of thigh

Lateral patellar retinaculum

IT band

Biceps femoris

Middle:

Superficial LCL

Deep:

Capsule

Popliteus

Deep LCL

20

Name the layers and structures of the posterolateral corner of the knee:

Superficial:

IT band

Biceps femoris

Middle:

Lateral retinaculum

Popliteofibular ligament

Deep:

LCL

Popliteus

Lateral capsule

Arcuate ligament

Mnemonic: "I Bet Little Papp Loves Popping Lots of Ass"

21

What part of the tibial plateau is concave and convexÉ

Medial is concave Lateral is convex

22

What is the insertion of the IT bandÉ

Gerdys tubercle

23

What is the insertion of the patellar tendon

tibial tubercle

24

What is the usual deformity of a proximal one third tibia fracture

valgus and procurvatum

 

(from Pes and extensor mechanism)

25

What attaches at the fibular head

LCL Biceps femoris tendon

26

What structure wraps around the neck of the fibula

Common peroneal nerve

27

What surface of the distal fibula is flat and accommodates plating

Posterolateral surface

28

What type of joint is the proximal tibiofibular joint and what ligaments strengthen it

Plane gliding joint Stabilized by: - Anterior ligament of fibular head - Posterior ligament of fibular head

29

Name the four compartments of the leg

Anterior Lateral Superficial posterior Deep posterior

30

Name the components of the anterior compartment of the leg

Anterior tibial artery and vein

Deep peroneal nerve

Muscles:

Tibialis anterior

EHL

EDL

Sometimes peroneus tertius (not in lateral compartment)