What law sets "national ambient air quality standards"?
For this law, what are primary standards, and what are secondary standards?
Name the 6 criteria pollutants in this law.
Clean Air Act
Primary standards: protect against human health impact
Secondary standards: protect trees, livestock, buildings
Criteria pollutants: SO2, NO2, particulates, CO, ozone, Pb
For the Clean Air Act, describe the permit process for emissions as it relates to maximum achievable control technology.
If a company wants to change their operations and needs to receive a new permit for emissions, they must implement maximum achievable control technology.
Describe the two goals of the Clean Water Act. What is the purpose of the construction grants in this act? What do pre-treatment standards require from industry?
To provide "fishable/swimmable" waters; to eliminate discharge of pollutants
Construction grants assist POTW in improving technology and facilities
Pre-treatment standards require industry to pre-treat wastewater before it is released to a POTW.
For the Clean Water Act, describe how discharge standards are derived.....
How is ambient water quality criterion set?
Besides the ambient water quality criterion, what two factors are considered in creating the discharge standard?
Ambient water quality criterion set by finding pollutant effect on the most sensitive species and then applying a safety factor to determine a safe pollutant concentration level in the water.
Discharge standard based on ambient water quality criterion, maximum wastewater discharge rate, and minimum receiving water flow.
What is the point at which Safe Drinking Water Act standards apply? What does the SDWA prohibit?
SDWA standards apply to the point of distribution (not the tap). SDWA prohibits uncontrolled underground injection of wastes.
For the SDWA, what are MCLs (or MCLGs)? What is the MCLG for carcinogens?
MCLG = maximum contaminant level goal; these are health-based drinking water standards; do not consider feasibility or cost MCLGs for carcinogens = 0
What is TSCA's goal? Did TSCA apply to old chemicals or new chemicals? What chemicals were banned by TSCA? What chemical was phased out?
TSCA goal: prevent introduction of hazardous chemical products into commerce. TSCA applied to new chemicals; existing chemicals were "grandfathered in." PCBs were banned; absestos was phased out.
What is a pre-manufacture notice for TSCA?
What are the two conditions which require the producer to notify the EPA?
PMN: producer of a new chemical product must notify and petition EPA, which can require more testing.
Producer must notify EPA if:
1) significant new use (SNUR)
2) discovery of new significant hazard info
Describe the overarching purpose of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In general, what are the two requirements of the companies that generate hazardous wastes?
"cradle to grave" management of hazardous wastes Generators of hazardous wastes must: 1) follow specific handling, labeling, storage requirements 2) send waste to designated disposal facility.
What is the general goal of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act? How does the EPA derive goals for cleanup levels? CERCLA is funded by a tax on...?
CERCLA establishes Superfund sites. Goal is to speed up the clean up of hazardous substances at these sites. "Clean up now; responsible party pays later." Conservative risk assessments are used to derive cleanup levels. CERCLA funded by a tax on oil and chemicals.
What does the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) regulate? In general, describe what FIFRA requires pesticide manufacturers to demonstrate?
FIFRA regulates pesticide distribution, sale, and use. FIFRA requires pesticide manufacturers to demonstrate that their product will not cause adverse effects on the environment or to humans through dietary exposure to pesticide residues.