Toxicity: General, Solvents, Metals Flashcards Preview

Environmental Mid-Term > Toxicity: General, Solvents, Metals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Toxicity: General, Solvents, Metals Deck (19)
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1

What is the mechanism of toxicity for OP pesticides? What enzyme do they inhibit? What neurotransmitter builds up? What are some s/s?

OPs inhibit AChE; which causes a buildup of ACh --> overstimulate receptors --> anxiety, seizures, tremors, emotional lability, visual disturbance, bronchospasm, arrhythmia, diarrhea

2

What is the mechanism of toxicity for cyanide? It inhibits enzymes involved in what process? In what location? What necessary product can affected cells not produce?

CN inhibits enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. As a result, these cells cannot produce ATP.

3

In general, what is the acute mechanism of toxicity for solvents?

Disrupt nerve cell membrane --> respiratory depression

4

Alkanes; ex: pentane
Lipophilic or Hydrophilic?
What are liver (1) and nervous system (1) effects of chronic exposure?

Alkanes; ex: pentane
Lipophilic
liver necrosis; polyneuropathy

5

Aromatic Hydrocarbons; ex: benzene, toluene, xylene
Describe their hemotoxic effects.
Which example is carcinogenic?

Aromatic Hydrocarbons; ex: benzene, toluene, xylene
destroy bone marrow, causing aplastic anemia
benzene --> leukemia

6

Glycol Ethers; ex: ethyl cellusolve; butyl cellusolve
low vapor P; high H2O solubility;
Describe toxic effects related to nervous system (5) and hematology (1).
What other organ system does this class target?

Glycol Ethers; ex: ethyl cellusolve; butyl cellusolve
low vapor P; high H2O solubility;
demyelination; h/a; personality disorder; lethargy; blurred vision; aplastic anemia; reproductive effects

7

Ketones; ex: MEK, MIBK
Describe CNS-related toxicity (6); peripheral neurotoxicity (2); and toxicity related to hexane (1)

Ketones; ex: MEK, MIBK
CNS: CNS depression, h/a, nausea, ataxia, lethargy, speech
PNS: peripheral neuropathy; polyneuropathy; potentiate hexane neurotoxicity

8

Alcohols; ex: methanol, ethanol; CNS depressants; Describe hepatotoxicity (2); fetal toxicity (which alcohol?); visual toxicity (which alcohol?); toxicity related to chlorinated hydrocarbons

Alcohols; ex: methanol, ethanol; CNS depressants;
Fatty liver, cirrhosis; FAS (ethanol); blindness (methanol); potentiate chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicity

9

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons; ex: chloroform, CCl4, TCE; non-flammable, high vapor P (intrusion); describe hepatotoxicity (2); cancers (2); fetal toxicity

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons; ex: chloroform, CCl4, TCE; non-flammable, high vapor P (intrusion); livery necrosis + fatty liver; kidney + liver cancer; mildly teratogenic

10

Arsenic; Uses include smelting, paint pigment, and (2) others?; naturally occurs where (2)?; Which form is toxic? What enzymes does it affect?

Arsenic; smelting, paint pigment, firing agent, wood preservative; occurs in seafood, groundwater; trivalent form is toxic; hits mitochondrial respiratory enzymes

11

Arsenic; Describe hepatotoxicity (2); carcinogenicity (4); and other systems targeted (4)

Arsenic; jaundice + cirrhosis; carcinogenic @ skin, lung, liver, leukemia; also toxic @ cardiac, renal, vascular, and neuro

12

Cadmium; uses include smelting, paint pigment, batteries, and (2) others? High uptake via which route? Describe destination, accumulation and half-life.

Cadmium; uses include smelting, paint pigment, batteries, electroplating, galvanizing; High uptake via inhalation; binds to RBCs, accumulates in liver/kidney; long half-life (30y)

13

Cadmium; Describe lung toxicity (2); What other (4) systems affected, including (1) unique disease?

Cadmium; COPD + lung cancer; nephrotoxicity + hypertension + digestive effects + "itai-itai" (skeletal)

14

Lead; uses include paint, batteries, fuel additive, and (2) others? Exposure via lead paint what other source? Binds to RBCs and has what (3) destinations?

Lead; uses include paint, batteries, fuel additive, solder, nuclear shielding; Binds to RBCs, can deposit in skeleton, brain, and cross placenta

15

Lead; describe neurotoxicity (3), enzyme inhibition (1), and what other (2) toxicity targets?

Lead; peripheral neuropathy (sub Pb for Ca), encephalopathy, IQ impairment; inhibits delta ALA; targets hearing + kidney

16

Mercury; sources include burning fossil fuels, mining, and (1) other?; What is the major toxic form?; uses include switches, thermostats, thermometers, and what extractant use?

Mercury; sources include burning fossil fuels, mining, and degassing of crust; major toxic form: methyl mercury from bacteria; uses include switches, thermostats, thermometers, gold purification

17

Elemental Hg can vaporize and target what system?; methyl mercury exposure via what route?; describe CH3-Hg accumulation; describe CH3-Hg targets (2)

Elemental Hg vaporizes, targets CNS; CH3-Hg exposure via ingestion; CH3-Hg does not accumulate (70d t1/2); hits brain, cross placenta

18

Hg salts cause renal necrosis and what (3) GI effects?

Hg salts: renal necrosis, cramping + diarrhea + gastric bleeding

19

Methyl mercury toxicity from chronic fish ingestion causes what unique disease? It causes fetal toxicity; describe neurotoxicity (6)

CH3-Hg toxicity from chronic fish ingestion --> Minimata Disease; numbness, ataxia, fatigue, vision/hearing impairment, tremor