Describe mechanism of damage for microwave radiation.
Microwave radiation: interact with water to induce heating --> tissue damage
Describe mechanism of damage for infrared radiation.
Infrared radiation: heat --> burns, heat stress
Describe mechanism of damage of visible radiation.
Visible radiation: no effect on cells; can impact visual acuity
Describe 3 damaging effects of UV radiation.
UV radiation: sunburn, visual impairment, skin cancer
3 factors affecting EM radiation hazard are: time, distance, and shielding. Describe the relationship with respect to distance.
3 factors affecting EM radiation hazard are: time, distance, and shielding. % reduction = 1 / (d^2)
Which (4) forms of ionizing radiation can penetrate skin?
Beta, Neutrons, Gamma, Xray can penetrate skin; gamma has highest penetration
Describe gamma radiation in terms of its source, charge, and mass.
Gamma: released from nucleus of unstable radioactive atom; no charge or mass
Describe beta radiation in terms of its source, mass, and charge. What is it identical to?
Beta: emitted from nucleus of unstable atom; extremely small, charged; identical to electron
Describe alpha radiation in terms of source, mass, and charge.
Alpha: bare He nucleus (2 protons, no neutrons); high mass and charge
Describe acute effects of radiation in terms of threshold, dose, and targets (5).
Acute effects of radiation: definite threshold, requires high dose; hits skin (irritation, burn), repro (sterility); hematopoietic, gastrointestinal; CNS
Describe the interaction of radiation with living cells. What type of molecule is hit first? What molecules are produced? What effects do these molecules have?