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Flashcards in Lesion Localization Deck (30)
1

What are the components of the neuroaxis? (5)

-Brain
-Spinal cord
-peripheral nerves
-NM junction
-Muscle

2

What are the three components of the brain?

-Cortex
-Subcortex
-Brainstem/cerebellum

3

What are the three components of the peripheral nervous system?

-Nerve root
-Neuromuscular junction
-Muscle

4

What are the components of the upper motor neuron?

-Cortex
-Subcortex
-Brainstem
-Cerebellum
-Spinal cord

5

Are fasciculations an UMN or LMN lesion?

LMN

6

What is agnosia?

the inability to process sensory information. Often there is a loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory los

7

What is apraxia?

a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex), in which someone has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked,

8

What are the two major causes of cognition disturbances?

Dementia
Delirium

9

Are visual field deficits a cortex or subcortex sign?

Subcortex

10

Pure motor or pure sensory deficits are usually subcortical. Why?

Subcortical--Would have to hit a huge area of the homunculus if it were cortical, and have a lot of accompanying s/sx

11

What is dyssynergia?

Slow movement with FNF

12

What is ataxia?

Incoordination out of proportion to the amount of paresis

13

CN deficits are caused by lesions where?

In the brainstem

14

Crossed signs point to a lesion where?

Brainstem involvement

15

Prominent dysarthria points to a lesion where?

Brainstem

16

Myelopathy indicates a lesion where?

Spinal sensory level

17

Myelopathy usually involves what symptoms?

Bladder and bowel involvement

18

How do you test for myelopathy?

Check sensations in dermatomes

19

True or false: radiculopathy is usually symmetric

False--asymmetric

20

How does radicular pain present?

Sharp and shooting pain in a dermatomal distribution

May show a radiculopathy

21

How does peripheral nerve neuropath present?

Distribution along a specific nerve

22

Multiple peripheral nerve symptoms typically point to what sort of problem?

Entrapment or diffuse process (e.g. DM neuropathy)

23

What is the hallmark sign of neuromuscular junction problems?

Fluctuating motor weakness with easy fatigability

Diurnal variation

24

The more profound the muscle atrophy = what type of problem?

LMN lesions

25

Which has distal weakness more than proximal: neuropathy/myopathy?

Myopathy = proxima greater than distal

Neuro = distal greater than proximal

26

What is the dividing line of UMN/LMN?

Becomes LMN as soon as it exits the spinal cord.

27

Language deficits usually result from lesions where (generally)?

Lesions in the cortex

28

If a spinal sensory level is involved, where is the lesion?

Spinal cord

29

Which has a more profound muscle atrophy: UMN or LMN neuropathies?

LMN

30

Which presents with sensory signs: myopathy or neuropathy?

Neuropathy