Neurobehavior I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurobehavior I Deck (64)
1

What is the main role of the temporal lobe?

Learning and language

2

Where is Wernicke's area located?

Temporal lobe

3

Where is new verbal and visual memory processed?

Verbal = left medial temporal lobe

Visual = Right medial temporal lobe

4

Where is semantic memory processed?

Lateral temporal lobe

5

Where is face/object recognition processed?

Posterior part of the temporal lobe

6

What part of the brain processes emotions?

Amygdala (part of temporal lobe)

7

What lobe of the brain is the amygdala found in? Hippocampus?

Both in the temporal lobe

8

What is the role of the entorhinal cortex?

an area of the brain located in the medial temporal lobe and functioning as a hub in a widespread network for memory and navigation. The EC is the main interface between the hippocampus and neocortex.

9

What is the order of the perirhinal, parahippocampal, and entorhinal cortices, from anterior to posterior?

Perirhinal
Entorhinal
Parahippocampal

10

What, generally, is the Papez circuit?

a neural circuit for the control of emotional expression.

11

What is the pathway of the circuit of Papez? (7)

1. Hippocampal formation
2. Fornix
3. Mamillary bodies
4. Mammillothalamic tract
5. Anterior thalamic nucleus
6. Cingulum
7. Entorhinal cortex

("Can Every Hippo Forget Mammals Are Clever")

12

What happens to the brain with a lesion to the circuit of papez?

Inability to form new memories, usually if both sides are lesioned

13

HSV likes to affect what part of the brain with HSV encephalitis?

Temporal lobes

14

What is the most common cause of a lesion in the circuit of papez?

Early alzheimer's disease

15

Where does Alzheimer's disease begin?

Hippocampus

16

What vitamin deficiency causes Korsakoff syndrome?

Thiamine

17

What part of the brain is affected with Korsakoff syndrome?

Mamillary bodies

18

What is Korsakoff syndrome?

Thiamine deficiency 2/2 EtOH abuse, causing anterograde and retrograde amnesia, as well as confabulation

19

Why does a thiamine deficiency lead to Korsakoff syndrome? What brain areas are affected?

Thiamine is essential for the decarboxylation of pyruvate, and deficiency during this metabolic process is thought to cause damage to the medial thalamus and mammillary bodies of the posterior hypothalamus, as well as generalized cerebral atrophy

20

What is the diencephalon?

Part of the prosencephalon that develops into the structures that are lateral to the third ventricle (e.g thalamus, hypothalamus

21

What is the part of the brain that stores memory?

Association cortices

22

What is the role of the hippocampus in memories?

Important for encoding and retrieval

23

What is the role of the frontal lobe in memory?

Organizes memories

24

What are confabulations?

The inability to distinguish a true memory from a false one, or from a memory inappropriate to the context

25

How can you test semantic memory?

Ask about a well known concept that has unique features

26

What is the general role of the parietal cortex?

Spatial processing tissue and reading, writing, math etc

27

In the visual pathway, where does the "what" pathway project to from the occipital cortex? How about the "where"?

"What" goes to the temporal lobe

"Where" goes to the parietal lobes

28

What part of the brain deals with praxis?

Parietal lobe

29

What part of the brain deals with spatial orientation?

Parietal lobes

30

What lobe is the angular gyrus in, and what does it do?

Parietal

Alexia, agraphia, acalculia (reading, writing, math)

31

What is the function of the nondominant parietal lobe?

Recognition of self (anosognosia)
-Visual spatial

32

What is anosognosia, and how does it occur?

Inability to recognize oneself--damage to the nondominant parietal lobe

33

What is apraxia, and what causes it?

Damage to the posterior parietal cortex leads to difficulty with planning to perform tasks or movements when asked

34

A lesion where will result in neglect?

Nondominant parietal lobe

35

What lobe contains Broca's area?

Dominant Frontal lobe

36

What are the general functions of the frontal lobe?

Executive functions, speech, attention, and social cognition

37

What lobe deals with social cognition?

Frontal

38

What lobe deals with attention?

Frontal

39

Lesions to the MDPC lead to what?

-Akinetic mutism
-Withdrawal
-Lack of initiative
-Poverty of speech

40

What are the three major areas of the frontal lobe?

-MDPC (mediodorsal nucleus)
-DLPC (Dorsolateral Prefrontal cortex)
-OFC (orbital frontal cortex)

41

What is the function of the OFC of the frontal cortex?

Inhibition of inappropriate social behavior,

42

Damage to the DLPC leads to what? (4)

-Impaired abstraction and logical thinking
-Poor planning
-Poor judgement
-Poor memory organization

43

What is akinetic mutism, and what causes it?

Lacking the drive to move or speak

Lesion to the MDPC of the frontal lobe

44

What are the two major parts of the subcortical space?

White matter
Basal ganglia

45

What happens with lesions to the white matter?

-Poor attention
-Psychomotor slowing
-Executive dysfunction

46

Why is executive function in particular impaired with white matter lesions?

There is a lot of white matter in the frontal lobe

47

What is the role of Wernicke's area?

Decodes sound into meaning in conjunction with the lexical areas

48

What is the role of the arcuate fasciculus?

Transmits information from Wernicke's area, to Broca's area

49

What is the role of Broca's area?

Translate phoneme into a motor pattern

50

Fluent aphasia comes from what?

Damage to Wernicke's area

51

What happens to a lesion in the arcuate fasciculus, in terms of understanding, fluency, and repetition?

fluency and understanding is intact, but cannot repeat words

52

What is a conduction aphasia?

Lesion to the arcuate fasciculus

53

What happens with a lesion to broca's area?

Inability to form words, but understanding is intact

54

A lesion to the connection between Wernicke's area and the lexical areas results in what?

Repetition is intact, but they cannot fully understand what they are saying

55

What area of the brain stores the pattern of movements required for certain movements?

Lexical-sematic area of the parietal lobe

56

What is prosopagnosia?

The inability to recognize familiar faces (but are able to tell that it is a face)

57

Diffuse white matter lesion (MS) causes what problems?

-Inability to concentrate
-Executive function problems

58

Left cortical lesion will produce what symptoms?

Apraxia

59

Inability to draw animals correctly = ?

Lesion in the temporal lexical regions

60

Dressing apraxia is caused by a lesion in what lobe?

Nondominant parietal lobe

61

What lobe is responsible for reading, writing, and math?

Dominant parietal lobe

62

A lesion where will produce akinetic mutism?

MDPC of the frontal cortex

63

What is the role of the angular gyrus?

Transforms visual representations into an auditory code

64

What causes alexia without agraphia?

Lesion in the dominant occipital lobe, producing a disconnection of the non-dominant occipital lobe from the dominant parietal lobe via a lesion in the inferior splenium of the corpus callosum