Flashcards in Neurobehavior I Deck (64)
What is the main role of the temporal lobe?
Learning and language
Where is Wernicke's area located?
Where is new verbal and visual memory processed?
Verbal = left medial temporal lobe
Visual = Right medial temporal lobe
Where is semantic memory processed?
Lateral temporal lobe
Where is face/object recognition processed?
Posterior part of the temporal lobe
What part of the brain processes emotions?
Amygdala (part of temporal lobe)
What lobe of the brain is the amygdala found in? Hippocampus?
Both in the temporal lobe
What is the role of the entorhinal cortex?
an area of the brain located in the medial temporal lobe and functioning as a hub in a widespread network for memory and navigation. The EC is the main interface between the hippocampus and neocortex.
What is the order of the perirhinal, parahippocampal, and entorhinal cortices, from anterior to posterior?
What, generally, is the Papez circuit?
a neural circuit for the control of emotional expression.
What is the pathway of the circuit of Papez? (7)
1. Hippocampal formation
3. Mamillary bodies
4. Mammillothalamic tract
5. Anterior thalamic nucleus
7. Entorhinal cortex
("Can Every Hippo Forget Mammals Are Clever")
What happens to the brain with a lesion to the circuit of papez?
Inability to form new memories, usually if both sides are lesioned
HSV likes to affect what part of the brain with HSV encephalitis?
What is the most common cause of a lesion in the circuit of papez?
Early alzheimer's disease
Where does Alzheimer's disease begin?
What vitamin deficiency causes Korsakoff syndrome?
What part of the brain is affected with Korsakoff syndrome?
What is Korsakoff syndrome?
Thiamine deficiency 2/2 EtOH abuse, causing anterograde and retrograde amnesia, as well as confabulation
Why does a thiamine deficiency lead to Korsakoff syndrome? What brain areas are affected?
Thiamine is essential for the decarboxylation of pyruvate, and deficiency during this metabolic process is thought to cause damage to the medial thalamus and mammillary bodies of the posterior hypothalamus, as well as generalized cerebral atrophy
What is the diencephalon?
Part of the prosencephalon that develops into the structures that are lateral to the third ventricle (e.g thalamus, hypothalamus
What is the part of the brain that stores memory?
What is the role of the hippocampus in memories?
Important for encoding and retrieval
What is the role of the frontal lobe in memory?
What are confabulations?
The inability to distinguish a true memory from a false one, or from a memory inappropriate to the context
How can you test semantic memory?
Ask about a well known concept that has unique features
What is the general role of the parietal cortex?
Spatial processing tissue and reading, writing, math etc
In the visual pathway, where does the "what" pathway project to from the occipital cortex? How about the "where"?
"What" goes to the temporal lobe
"Where" goes to the parietal lobes
What part of the brain deals with praxis?
What part of the brain deals with spatial orientation?
What lobe is the angular gyrus in, and what does it do?
Alexia, agraphia, acalculia (reading, writing, math)
What is the function of the nondominant parietal lobe?
Recognition of self (anosognosia)
What is anosognosia, and how does it occur?
Inability to recognize oneself--damage to the nondominant parietal lobe
What is apraxia, and what causes it?
Damage to the posterior parietal cortex leads to difficulty with planning to perform tasks or movements when asked
A lesion where will result in neglect?
Nondominant parietal lobe
What lobe contains Broca's area?
Dominant Frontal lobe
What are the general functions of the frontal lobe?
Executive functions, speech, attention, and social cognition
What lobe deals with social cognition?
What lobe deals with attention?
Lesions to the MDPC lead to what?
-Lack of initiative
-Poverty of speech
What are the three major areas of the frontal lobe?
-MDPC (mediodorsal nucleus)
-DLPC (Dorsolateral Prefrontal cortex)
-OFC (orbital frontal cortex)
What is the function of the OFC of the frontal cortex?
Inhibition of inappropriate social behavior,
Damage to the DLPC leads to what? (4)
-Impaired abstraction and logical thinking
-Poor memory organization
What is akinetic mutism, and what causes it?
Lacking the drive to move or speak
Lesion to the MDPC of the frontal lobe
What are the two major parts of the subcortical space?
What happens with lesions to the white matter?
Why is executive function in particular impaired with white matter lesions?
There is a lot of white matter in the frontal lobe
What is the role of Wernicke's area?
Decodes sound into meaning in conjunction with the lexical areas
What is the role of the arcuate fasciculus?
Transmits information from Wernicke's area, to Broca's area
What is the role of Broca's area?
Translate phoneme into a motor pattern
Fluent aphasia comes from what?
Damage to Wernicke's area
What happens to a lesion in the arcuate fasciculus, in terms of understanding, fluency, and repetition?
fluency and understanding is intact, but cannot repeat words
What is a conduction aphasia?
Lesion to the arcuate fasciculus
What happens with a lesion to broca's area?
Inability to form words, but understanding is intact
A lesion to the connection between Wernicke's area and the lexical areas results in what?
Repetition is intact, but they cannot fully understand what they are saying
What area of the brain stores the pattern of movements required for certain movements?
Lexical-sematic area of the parietal lobe
What is prosopagnosia?
The inability to recognize familiar faces (but are able to tell that it is a face)
Diffuse white matter lesion (MS) causes what problems?
-Inability to concentrate
-Executive function problems
Left cortical lesion will produce what symptoms?
Inability to draw animals correctly = ?
Lesion in the temporal lexical regions
Dressing apraxia is caused by a lesion in what lobe?
Nondominant parietal lobe
What lobe is responsible for reading, writing, and math?
Dominant parietal lobe
A lesion where will produce akinetic mutism?
MDPC of the frontal cortex
What is the role of the angular gyrus?
Transforms visual representations into an auditory code