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UP and how it was issued

Universal Precautions . Issued by CDC after growing AIDS and HIV epidemic



Occupational Health and Safety Administration


BSI and why created

Body Substance Isolation . Created because the UP only covered blood and visibly body fluids contaminated with blood. These guidelines now precautions for all body fluids and all moist and potentially infectious body substances. . However neither covered airborne diseases.


Standard percautions what is it?

issued by CDC in 1996 safety guidelines for healthcare workers and included UP and BSI guidelines to prevent HAIs. Issued because confusion between BSI, UP and BPS


Transmission based precautions

Guidelines in SP to be used with patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens spread by air, droplets or contact like measles, Tuberculosis bacterium.


SP requires what and which guidelines must be applied

Requires that every patient and every body fluid, body substance, organ, or unfixed tissue be regarded as potentially infections.
Must be applied: To all patients regardless of infection status, To all body fluids, excretions, and secretions, to nonintact skin, to mucous membranes, to organs and unfixed tissues


Hand antisepsis

using an antiseptic soap or waterless antiseptics


Exposure Control Plan

Identify all employees with occupational exposure to human blood or OPIM. Employees must have access to updated safety manual . Plans to eliminate exposure incident


Responsibilities of employer when implementing a exposure control plan

Provide PPEs appropriate for task to be performed
Use of warning label or sign
Exposure control plan must have control methods as described by the UP and BPS
Must provide free HBV vaccination immunization or workers at risk for exposure to bloodborne pathogens


Parental route

any other route than the alimentary route; intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, mucosal


Alimentary route

through digestive tube from mouth to stomach


What types of substances have the potential to transmit pathogens

Blood products, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, semen


What are exposure control methods

how to work with a patient safely without getting exposed . Components include PPE, Standard Precautions, Engineering Controls, Work Practice Controls


What is PPE

Personal Protective Equipment - specialized clothing to equipment used by workers to prevent direct exposure to blood or other substances


Engineering Controls and example

Devices that eliminate or minimize worker exposure / Example benchtop acrylic splash shield , wall hung sharps collector ,


work practice controls and example

the manner in which a task is performed to reduce the likelihood of exposure eg. use surface disinfectant regulary like 10%chlorine bleach, remove and dispose PPE when cleaning biological spills



can cause damage or injury to host


sterilization and example of how its done

killing or inactivation of all living organisms and viruses example Autoclave


disinfectants and example

chemicals used on inanimate objects or surfaces example dilute chlorine bleach, NA hypochlorite 1:10 dilution (Iradecon) , alcohols, iodophors 75 ppm, phenols or Quaternary ammonium compounds


antiseptic and example

chemical used on skin or tissue to inhibit growth of microbes - alcohols and hydrogen peroxide


Exposure control method for blood or blood products

wear gloves and buttoned fluid resistant laboratory coat


Exposure control method for pathogenic microorganisms

wear gloves and lab coat , work in biological safety cabinet


Exposure control method for hazardous aerosols

Use acrylic splash shield between worker and tubes when removing stopper, wear mask , goggles or faceshield


Exposure control method for contaminated work surfaces

wipe with 10% chlorine bleach solution before and after all procedures


Exposure control method for Needle sticks

use safety needles or quick release holders


how to properly wash hands

with water running lather hands with soap for 15 secs , rinse thoroughly under water, dry hands with paper towel, and use towel to turn off water


why do you need a safety agreement

to have proof of training program as part of the exposure control plan



OSHA guidelines for preventing occupational exposure to blood pathogens present in human blood and body fluids such as HIV, HBV, HCV