lesson 4: morphology Flashcards Preview

LING 200: Intro to Linguistic Thought > lesson 4: morphology > Flashcards

Flashcards in lesson 4: morphology Deck (28):
1

define: morphology

the study of words and the rules for word formation in a language

2

define: word

a meaningful unit of language that can stand on its own

3

define: morpheme

the smallest meaningful unit of language

4

define: free morpheme

can occur as an independent word

5

define: bound morpheme

cannot stand alone; must be attached to other morphemes; may be roots or affixes

6

define: root

base to which affixes attach; cannot be analyzed into smaller parts

7

roots can be free or bound. provide an example of each.

cat -> cats, catty, catlike.
struct -> construct, structure, instruct.

8

define: affix

morphemes that attach to a root (or stem).

9

true or false: all affixes are bound.

true

10

define: prefix

attaches to the beginning of a word

11

define: suffix

attaches to the end of a word

12

define: infix

inserted in the middle of a word

13

define: circumfix

attached around a word (at both ends)

14

english has no __ or __. (prefixes, suffixes, infixes, circumfixes)

infixes; circumfixes

15

define: derivational affix

make or derive new words with new meanings; may change lexical category.

16

define: inflectional affix

indicates grammatical roles; never changes the lexical category; doesn't change basic meaning of word

17

how do we know which affixes attach first in affix trees?

derivational affixes are constrained in which lexical categories they attach to

18

define: content morphemes

has some kind of semantic content of its own; includes derivational affixes

19

define: function morphemes

do not have substantial semantic content; provide grammatical function info by relating words of a sentence; includes inflectional affixes, prepositions, determiners, pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliaries

20

define: reduplication

forming new words by doubling a whole morpheme (total_ or part of it (partial); e.g., bye-bye, peepee

21

define: alternation

morphological distinctions that are marked by morpheme-internal changes (e.g., plurals: man--men, goose--geese; verb tense: ring--rang--rung; derivation: strife (n.), strive (v.)

22

define: suppletion

when morphological inflection is indicated with phonetically unrelated forms

23

define: compound

combination of 2 or more independent words to form a new word (e.g., redhot, blackboard, dryclean, whiteboard)

24

define: blend

combine parts of two words (e.g., brunch)

25

define: clipping

delete syllables (e.g., zoo: zoological park)

26

define: acronym

take the initial letters of each phrase/title (e.g., Husky Union Building = HUB)

27

define: conversion

derive new words in new lexical category without form changes (e.g., Googling (v.) from Google (n.)

28

define: allomorph

different phonetic realizations for the same morpheme