Flashcards in lesson 4: morphology Deck (28):
the study of words and the rules for word formation in a language
a meaningful unit of language that can stand on its own
the smallest meaningful unit of language
define: free morpheme
can occur as an independent word
define: bound morpheme
cannot stand alone; must be attached to other morphemes; may be roots or affixes
base to which affixes attach; cannot be analyzed into smaller parts
roots can be free or bound. provide an example of each.
cat -> cats, catty, catlike.
struct -> construct, structure, instruct.
morphemes that attach to a root (or stem).
true or false: all affixes are bound.
attaches to the beginning of a word
attaches to the end of a word
inserted in the middle of a word
attached around a word (at both ends)
english has no __ or __. (prefixes, suffixes, infixes, circumfixes)
define: derivational affix
make or derive new words with new meanings; may change lexical category.
define: inflectional affix
indicates grammatical roles; never changes the lexical category; doesn't change basic meaning of word
how do we know which affixes attach first in affix trees?
derivational affixes are constrained in which lexical categories they attach to
define: content morphemes
has some kind of semantic content of its own; includes derivational affixes
define: function morphemes
do not have substantial semantic content; provide grammatical function info by relating words of a sentence; includes inflectional affixes, prepositions, determiners, pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliaries
forming new words by doubling a whole morpheme (total_ or part of it (partial); e.g., bye-bye, peepee
morphological distinctions that are marked by morpheme-internal changes (e.g., plurals: man--men, goose--geese; verb tense: ring--rang--rung; derivation: strife (n.), strive (v.)
when morphological inflection is indicated with phonetically unrelated forms
combination of 2 or more independent words to form a new word (e.g., redhot, blackboard, dryclean, whiteboard)
combine parts of two words (e.g., brunch)
delete syllables (e.g., zoo: zoological park)
take the initial letters of each phrase/title (e.g., Husky Union Building = HUB)
derive new words in new lexical category without form changes (e.g., Googling (v.) from Google (n.)