lesson 1: what is language? Flashcards Preview

LING 200: Intro to Linguistic Thought > lesson 1: what is language? > Flashcards

Flashcards in lesson 1: what is language? Deck (22):
1

define "linguistic competence"

what you know when you know a language--largely hidden and unconscious

2

define "linguistic performance"

observable realization of one's linguistic competence as revealed in speech and language behavior

3

define "phonetics"

the study of the physical properties of speech sounds and how they are made

4

define "phonology"

the study of the organization and distribution of speech sounds

5

define "morphology"

the study of the formation of words

6

define "syntax"

the study of the structure of phrases and sentences

7

define "semantics"

the study of the meanings of words and sentences

8

____ ____ can be divided into lexicon and mental grammar.

linguistic competence

9

define "lexicon"

a mental dictionary containing all the information you know about the words of your language

10

define "mental grammar"

knowledge of the rules that govern the sounds/words/sentences in your language

11

define "prescriptive grammar"

a set of rules prescribing what people should or shouldn't say to be considered correct or proper

12

define "descriptive grammar"

a set of rules describing what people do or can say in their language (i.e., what is possible vs. impossible)

13

____ grammar is natural and known intuitively; ____ grammar is not natural and must be taught in school

descriptive; prescriptive

14

____ grammar reflects value judgments; ____ grammar makes no value judgments

prescriptive; descriptive

15

which three design features of language are shared by all communication systems?

mode of communication, semanticity, pragmatic function

16

define "interchangeability" as a design feature of language

a user can both transmit and receive messages

17

define "cultural transmission" as a design feature of language

some aspect of the communication system is learned from other users (e.g., Chinese child of French-speaking parents will learn French)

18

define "arbitrariness" as a design feature of language

there is no (necessary) connection between form of signal and its meaning

19

the opposite of an arbitrary language is a(n) ____ language

iconic

20

define "discreteness" as a design feature of language

larger, complex messages are built out of smaller, discrete parts

21

define "displacement" as a design feature of language

ability to talk about things not present in space or time

22

define "productivity" as a design feature of language

users can create infinite numbers of novel utterances that others can understand