Flashcards in lesson 1: what is language? Deck (22):
define "linguistic competence"
what you know when you know a language--largely hidden and unconscious
define "linguistic performance"
observable realization of one's linguistic competence as revealed in speech and language behavior
the study of the physical properties of speech sounds and how they are made
the study of the organization and distribution of speech sounds
the study of the formation of words
the study of the structure of phrases and sentences
the study of the meanings of words and sentences
____ ____ can be divided into lexicon and mental grammar.
a mental dictionary containing all the information you know about the words of your language
define "mental grammar"
knowledge of the rules that govern the sounds/words/sentences in your language
define "prescriptive grammar"
a set of rules prescribing what people should or shouldn't say to be considered correct or proper
define "descriptive grammar"
a set of rules describing what people do or can say in their language (i.e., what is possible vs. impossible)
____ grammar is natural and known intuitively; ____ grammar is not natural and must be taught in school
____ grammar reflects value judgments; ____ grammar makes no value judgments
which three design features of language are shared by all communication systems?
mode of communication, semanticity, pragmatic function
define "interchangeability" as a design feature of language
a user can both transmit and receive messages
define "cultural transmission" as a design feature of language
some aspect of the communication system is learned from other users (e.g., Chinese child of French-speaking parents will learn French)
define "arbitrariness" as a design feature of language
there is no (necessary) connection between form of signal and its meaning
the opposite of an arbitrary language is a(n) ____ language
define "discreteness" as a design feature of language
larger, complex messages are built out of smaller, discrete parts
define "displacement" as a design feature of language
ability to talk about things not present in space or time