Lesson 5 - Obedience To Authority Flashcards Preview

Social Influence - Module 2: Obedience > Lesson 5 - Obedience To Authority > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lesson 5 - Obedience To Authority Deck (9)
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1

What is Obedience?

Behaving as instructed by an authority figure

2

What is an authority figure?

They have status or power over others

3

Who conducted this experiment and when?

Milgram (1963)

4

What was Milgram’s Procedure? (Background and Introduction)

- Placed an advert in the newspaper for male participants
- They were told they were taking part in how the effect of punishment affects learning
- 40 participants were invited to Yale
- Participants met the experimenter, dressed in a white lab coat
- Participants were introduced to Mr Wallace (old man + weak heart)
- Participants were always teachers and Mr W was always the learner
- Mr W was told to memorise pairs of words
- Teacher was told to shock Mr Wallace every time he made a mistake, increasing the voltage every time.

5

What was Milgram’s Procedure? (what happened in lab)

- Teacher was in an adjoining room to the Learner
- Teacher had to administer shocks when Learner made a mistake
- Switches were labelled with voltage ratings, starting with 15V and ending at 450V
- Each group of switches were labelled e.g ‘XXX’ and ‘Severe Shock’
- As shocks became severe, Mr W demanded to be released, screamed, complained about his weak heart and eventually went quiet.
- Experimenter ensured that the teacher continued, even after the teacher became reluctant; the teacher was prompted to continue even saying ‘you have no choice, you must continue’

6

What were the findings of Milgram’s experiment?

- 100% of participants gave shocks up to 300V (Mr W stopped answering)
- 65% of participants gave shocks to maximum voltage: 450V
- Participants felt and showed a high level of stress during the experiment
- Most were obedient and willing to inflict lethal shocks on an old man w/heart problems

7

Evaluation of Milgram (1963) Ethics: Pros and Cons

- Deception: Participants were deceived about the true nature of the experiment
- Lack of Informed Consent: Led to believe they were administering real shocks and didn’t not agree to do so explicitly
- Psychological Harm: Participants were extremely distressed and were anxious (thought they had killed Mr W). This harm was not anticipated.
- No right to withdraw: Participants were not allowed to leaved and were forced to continue
- No Demand Characteristics: increases validity of study

8

Evaluation of Milgram (1963) Cost Benefit Analysis

- Study was worthwhile
- People take more responsibility
- People will not blindly follow orders
- Participants did not suffer any long term emotional disturbances
- 84% participants were happy to take part

9

Evaluation of Milgram (1963) Sample

- Gender Bias: Only men chosen
- Cultural Bias: Only white people chosen

Data is unrepresentative and cannot be generalised to women or people of other cultures