Lesson 6: Philosophy and Spirituality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 6: Philosophy and Spirituality Deck (85)
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1
Q

is a central concept in discussing the nature of human soul. It refers primarily to how the body, its senses, and perception define human function and consciousness.

A

Embodiment

2
Q

that man is able to perceive and experience reality through his physical body.

A

embodied cognition

the notion of the self arises through the interaction between the individual and his or her environment

3
Q

These doctrines holds that the spirit is created by God, and that it is embodied in the human being

A

Christian doctrines

Upon the body’s demise, the spirit continues to persist into the afterlife

4
Q

Christian doctrine

an essential element for salvation of mankind, as it will be raised from the dead and shall receive the judgement of God

A

Spirit

5
Q

An Embodied Spirit

focuses on the kind of substances and capacities that uniquely make up a human person

A

Metaphysical approach

6
Q

An Embodied Spirit

focuses on the kind of life, or mode of existence, that is unique to a human person

A

Existential approach

7
Q
  • he describes the metaphysical approach as dealing with the what of a human person,
  • while the existential approach as dealing with the who of a human person
A

Martin Heidegger

8
Q

Components of the Human Person

Human person is essentially just his/her body and nothing more

A

unspirited body view

belief that humans do not have a spiritual component

9
Q

Components of the Human Person

Human person is essentially just his/her spirit

A

disembodied spirit view

belief that while the body is dependent on the spirit, the spirit is not dependent on the body

10
Q

Components of the Human Person

human person is essentially the unity of his/her body and spirit

A

embodied spirit view

the body and spirit cannot exist independently of one another

11
Q

believed that the human spirit or soul is composed of three parts

A

Plato

12
Q

According to Plato, the human spirit or soul is composed of three parts:

A
  • logos (the mind or reason)
  • thymos (spirit)
  • epithymia (appetite)

Every individual exists an internal conflict, explained by conflicting parts of the soul

13
Q

Plato’s three parts of the soul:

is responsible for having our rational goals

located in the head

A

logos

14
Q

Plato’s three parts of the soul:

is the will or the drive toward an action

located in the chest

A

thymos

15
Q

Plato’s three parts of the soul:

refers to the thing that the body desires

located in the abdomen

A

epithymia

16
Q

rejected Plato’s explanation and believed that the soul is not independent of the body but is integrated into the human being. He explained that the individual is composed of form and matter.

A

Aristotle

17
Q

According to Aristotle

refers to the components that make up an object

A

Matter

various elements and components from nature come together to form the physical structure of the body

18
Q

According to Aristotle

refers to the structure and arrangement of matter that actually gives rise to the object it itself.

A

Form

the soul combines with the body to gve rise to the individual person

19
Q

considers the question of how the mental or non-physical are abe to interact with the physical body and to what extent one influences the other

A

mind-body problem

20
Q

belief that the physical process determined the state of the mind

A

physicalism

21
Q

view that holds that mental processes and thought are only the only reality

A

idealism

22
Q

a view that argues human being is composed of elements that are neither physical nor mental

A

monism

23
Q

believes the distinctiveness of physical and mental nature of man

A

dualism

24
Q

argued that self-awareness and consciousness exists even if the body is deprived of its senses. For him, the soul is immaterial, indestructible, and independent of the body.

A

Avicenna

He deduced that even without sensory data, one is able to intellectually recude the idea that an individual has an existing soul

25
Q

who proposed that the mind and body exist as two separate entities that interact with one another

A

Rene Descartes

26
Q

Descartes used ____________ , doubting everything that he knows to remove false knowledge and opinion.

A

methodic or systematic doubt

27
Q

Descartes later on reached his monumental conclusion, “ ______________________________” to affirm his existence.

A

“I think, therefore I am,”

For Descartes, what is certain is his doubt or thought and that doubt should originate from somewhere, particularly the individual who had formulated that doubt or thought in his or her mind.

28
Q

The latin of “I think, therefore I am.”

A

COGITO ERGO SUM!

Descartes says your brain is powerful, therefore we can say that there are endless possibilities for us as we exist!

29
Q

A strong statement created by Descartes tells us that our existence on how we think

man is not man if he does not think!

A

Cogito

If man doesn’t think, he ceases to exists – we may compare him to a cadaver (Aristotle reference)

30
Q

I think, therefore I am

Therefore

A

Ergo

31
Q

I think, therefore I am

I am

A

Sum

I am a human person, I exist, and I can change the world. Therefore, let us feed our minds through reading books

32
Q

they also foundered on the nature of men but placed more emphasis on the spirit or soul as the essential component of human existence

A

Religious philosophers

33
Q

religious philosopher

believed the soul is the first actuality of the body; for there to be a body, there should first be a soul

A

St. Thomas Aquinas

34
Q

has substance but has no physical or concrete form and is able to exist even without the body

A

Soul

35
Q

religious philosophers

considers the soul as the driving force that governs the body and defines the human person

A

St. Augustine

36
Q

states that “The spirit gives form to the body, and that the human person is a spiritual being with a material body”

A

According to Reverent Chaucey GIles, in his work “The Nature of Spirit and of Man as Spiritual Being”

37
Q

The Nature of Spirit and of Man as Spiritual Being

Man’s ________ nature enables him/her to relate and interact with the physical world

A

physical

38
Q

The Nature of Spirit and of Man as Spiritual Being

Where does man’s physical nature come from?

A

comes from the breath of God

enables hi/her to relate with God

39
Q

Biblical account

is used to describe the physical-spritual man and the wholeness of the spirit and the body

A

soul

soul is never equated with the spirit

40
Q

Biblical account

this act into man is essential as it gives man a spirit which defines him/her as a soul - that is a living being, a person

A

act of breathing life

41
Q

Biblical account

refers to the wholeness of the person

A

soul

“Love the Lord your God, with all your heart and with all your soul..”

42
Q

Biblical account

used to refer to the spiritual nature of man

A

spirit

“Father, into your hands I commend my spirit.”

43
Q

Biblical account

holds that man is composed of three essential parts: body, soul, and spirit.
- The soul is defined as the component which gives man life and will
- spirit enables man to establish a connection with god.

A

trichotomic view

44
Q

Biblical account

view where there is no distiction between the spirit and soul and views men as being composed of body and spirit

A

dichotomic view

45
Q

Biblical account

views man is of a single or unitary constitution and that the body and spirit are inseparable and integrated.

A

psychosomatic view

46
Q

Biblical account

  • God breath the breathe of life
  • God-conscious
  • Man commmunicates with God, served Him and understand the relationship with God
A

Spirit

God dwells in the spirit

47
Q

Biblical account

  • Consummation of body and spirit
  • Self-conscious
  • Intellect
A

Soul

Self dwells in the soul

48
Q

Biblical account

  • Ground/dust
  • World-conscious
  • 5 organs/senses; communicates to the physical world
A

Body

sense dwells in the body

49
Q

Catholic doctrine holds that the human person is the union of the _______

A

body and soul

the soul enables man to know and love God

50
Q

study of God and other religious concepts

A

Theology

discusses the nature of God and use philosophical tools to define and understand the concept of divinity and religion

51
Q

is acknowledged as a supreme being that governs all existence, is the center of faith and devotion of a religion

A

God

52
Q

is the belief in the existence of a God or several deities

A

Theism

53
Q

belief in a single God

A

Monotheism

54
Q

The characteristics of God:

A
  1. Omniscience
  2. Omnipotence
  3. Omnipresence
  4. Benevolence
  5. Divine Simplicity
  6. Eternal
55
Q

characteristic

God is all-knowing

A

Omniscience

56
Q

characteristic

God is all-powerful

A

Omnipotence

57
Q

characteristic

God is ever-present

A

Omnipresence

58
Q

characteristic

God is perfectly good, just, and all-loving

A

Benevolence

59
Q

characteristic

All attributes are integrated and embodied in Him. God is not just “good”, He is goodness itself

A

Divine Simplicity

60
Q

Characteristic

God is timeless and has no beginning and end

A

Eternal

61
Q

analysis of sacred texts

A

revealed theology

62
Q

employed reason to subtantiate the existence of God

A

natural theology

63
Q

Contends that since man is able to conceive the notion of a Supreme Being, then it holds reason that such Supreme Being exists.

A

Ontological Argument

64
Q

Focuses on the purpose a God would play in the universe

A

Teleological Argument

argues that a Supreme Being is necessary for the continued existence of an orderly but complex universe

65
Q

Takes into account the nature of existence and the universe, and recognizes the existence of God has an explanation of how things came to being in our reality

A

Cosmological Argument

66
Q

He presented several arguements that point to God as the “prime mover”,“the first cause of existence,” and the “source of being” of reality and the universe

A

St. Thomas Aquinas

67
Q

cosmological argument

For Gottfried Willhelm Leibniz, all facts must have an explanation.

a principle

A

“principle of sufficient reason”

68
Q

From Islamic theology;
Everything that has a beginning has a cause. The universe has a beginning. Therefore, the universe has a cause.

A

kalam cosmological argument

69
Q

Holds that man’s ethical nature is brought about the existence of God

A

Moral Judgement

God is the representation of the greatest idea, “the greatest good”, and it is from him that all standards of goodness are based.

70
Q

the view of moral judgement was introduced by the Scottish philosopher?

A

William Sorley

71
Q

This argument consider God, a necessary being for the universe and all existence to make sense

A

Moral judgement

Life itself would hold little significance without God

72
Q

is the view which considers metaphysical concepts such as God to be inherently unknowable

A

Agnoticism

73
Q

rejection or nonbelief in the existence of God or any deity

A

Atheism

74
Q

God is the recognized ____ of the universe

A

Creator

God is the recognized Creator of the universe

75
Q

God plays a central role in ____ as it is through Him that saving faith is affected

A

redemptive salvation

76
Q

God also takes an active role in human condition ( ________ ) through blessings, miracles

A

divine providence

77
Q

God’s presence in this universe may be seen as either

A

immanenent or trancendent

78
Q

Regards God as manifesting Himself in the world as a unique entity

A

Immanence

79
Q

Christian doctrine recognizes God’s immanence through whom?

A

Jesus Christ

who came into being as part of the plan of salvation

80
Q

depicts God as existing outside the material world, and whose presence is beyond physical laws and human knowledge and understanding.

A

Transcendence

81
Q

view that God is both beyond and within the universe.

A

panentheistic view

82
Q

view that God is an all-encompassing presence in the universe and has no distinct presence as an entity.

A

pantheistic view

83
Q

view where God was a distinct entity but lost this state when He transformed Himself into the universe.

A

Pandeistic view

84
Q

proposed that human trascendence is based on rationality

A

Immanuel Kant

Humans are able to comprehend certain actions concepts that hav no equivalent physical obects or sensory experience

85
Q

considers the person’s ability to comprehend and relate to objects and being outside of his own self as an indication of transcendence

A

Jean-Paul Sartre

For him, transcendence lies the ability of persons to realte to people, things, and expeperiences in a meaningful manner