Flashcards in Lesson B9 - Cannabis Deck (70)
What are the 2 types of Cannabis Sativa?
How many chemical compounds are in Cannabis Sativa?
- Many of which are common to other plants
How many chemicals are only found in cannabis sativa and what are they called
What is the most potent psychoactive agent in cannabis?
- Accounts for most but not all of the psychoactive effects of Cannabis
THC accounts for all the psychoactive effects of cannabis
What are some common names of cannabis?
marijuana, hashish, hashish oil, charas, bhang, ganja, and dagga
True or False --> Cannabis was used to manufacture rope?
Marijuana is classified as a _________
Narcotic --> Controlled under the narcotic control act
Marijuana is classified as a 3 things. What are these things?
- Central nervous system depressant, euphoriant and hallucinogen
- Hallucinogenic properties only occur at high doses
The mechanism of action of marijuana is_____________
Not fully understood
The absorption of THC from marijuana smoke is ______ and the onset of action is _________________.
rapid, almost immediate
How long does the effect last for?
- 3-4 hours
- More must be inhaled to continue the "High"
How does the absorption change when THC is taken orally?
- Absorption slow and incomplete
- Onset of action delayed 30-60 minutes
- Effect will be less than if you smoked it
What is the half life of THC
- 30 hours
- Elimination from adipose tissue may take longer
What is measured in drug test for THC?
How long will users be tested positive for metabolites after stopping use?
- Several weeks (Does not mean they were under the influence at that time)
Cannabis extracts were once widely used, on medical prescription, as ___________________
Sedatives and hypnotics.
What are some of the possible uses for cannabinoids:
Nausea and vomiting, anorexia (loss of appetite), epilepsy, glaucoma, spasticity, and migraine.
What is one of the few applications that has found some measure of medical acceptance?
- The prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with anticancer drugs.
- Other anti-nausea drugs were better in studies
What are the two synthetic THC derivatives used as anti-nauseants? Why are they better?
- dronabinal and nabilone
- More selective in their actions than THC
Recently a metered dose inhaler containing THC has been approved for the treatment of _____________
Marijuana is the:
dried flowering tops and leaves of the harvested plans
Hashish consists of:
dried resin, usually from the flowers and compressed flowers
Hashish oil is obtained by:
extracting the cannabinoids from hashish.
What are some of the Effects of Short-Term Use – Low to Moderate Doses
Early effects will be seen as relaxation and drowsiness; there is disinhibition and talkativeness.
∙ A feeling of well-being, exhilaration and euphoria.
∙ They experience distortions in perception of time, body image and distance. Sense of
hearing and vision are enhanced.
∙ The perception of the senses of touch, smell and taste are enhanced (this may be useful as
an appetite stimulant).
∙ There is spontaneous laughter, impairment of short-term memory and concentration, and
confusion. The attention span may be reduced.
∙ Balance and stability on standing and walking can be impaired. The user may have
decreased muscle strength.
∙ Motor coordination is impaired (driving).
∙ The occasional user may experience fearfulness, anxiety and mild paranoia. Violent
behaviour is rare.
∙ The user may experience flashbacks, especially if they abused hallucinogens.
What are the cardiovascular effects of short-term use of low and moderate doses of cannabis products?
Cardiovascular: The smoker experiences an increased heart rate and increased blood flow to the extremities. Their blood pressure may not accommodate when moving from a sitting to a standing position (orthostatic hypotension).
What are the respiratory effects of short-term use of low and moderate doses of cannabis products?
The smoke and ingredients in the smoke irritates the mucous membranes lining the respiratory system. There is also bronchodilation.
What are the gastrointestinal effects of short-term use of low and moderate doses of cannabis products?
There is increased appetite and dryness of the mouth and throat.
What are some other effects of short-term use of low and moderate doses of cannabis products?
Sex drive may be reduced in males, as THC may reduce testosterone levels. In females, THC can disrupt the ovarian cycle. In utero exposure may be associated with “behavioural problems” in children. As the drug wears off, there is an experience of a “hangover” similar to that with alcohol
Will the effects from low- moderate doses stay the same with high doses of Marijuana?
- The effects will be accentuated
What are the CNS effects of short-term use of high doses of cannabis products?
Users may experience pseudohallucinations (hallucinations that the person knows are not real). There is a running together of senses, e.g. seeing music. Judgement will be impaired, as is coordination; reaction time is slowed and performance in simple motor tasks is impaired. There is often confusion of events; true hallucinations may occur as well as delusions. Mentation becomes confused and disorganized. The user may become paranoid, agitated and panic stricken. Occasionally, there is a toxic psychosis manifested as hallucinations, paranoid delusions, disorientation, sever agitation, and a feeling of de-personalization (I really don’t exist).
What are the "driving" effects of short-term use of high doses of cannabis products?
Tests conducted have demonstrated that THC interferes with functions required for the safe operation of a motor vehicle. These are motor coordination, tracking, perception, and vigilance. The actual performance on the road is impaired. The degree of disruption is dose-dependent, as little as one joint can be found to cause an impairment in some individuals. Alcohol and THC, used simultaneously, will intensify the adverse effects of each other on driving performance.
As little as _________ can be found to cause an impairment in some individuals in regards to driving
What happens when alcohol and THC are used simultaneously in regards to driving?
It will intensify the adverse effects of each other on driving performance.
The occasional low-dose use of cannabis does not appear to be associated with ___________________
harmful psychological effects
The risk of psychological dependence is more evident in users who:
Have emotional problems and use cannabis to control psychological stress
What are the characteristics of “amotivational syndrome” associated with high-dose use of cannabis products? Does this syndrome go away?
- This is characterized by mental slowing, loss of memory, difficulty with abstract thinking, loss of drive, and emotional flatness.
- The syndrome usually disappears upon cessation of drug use, suggesting that it represents chronic intoxication
What are the most common long-term effects of high-dose cannabis product use?
- The most common long-term effects seen are: loss of short-term memory, lack of concentration, and loss of ability in abstract thinking.
What are the permanent effects from long-term use
The issue of permanent effects from long-term use has not been settled, but some data suggests that structural changes do occur in the brain and these changes may be associated with impairment of memory and learning.
The cardiovascular effects of cannabis are usually _________
- The changes in blood pressure do not appear to be serious. The increase in heart rate can be a potential problem for the user with heart disease.
The ____________ is a major target for the adverse effects of smoking marijuana.
What are some respiratory effects that are higher in heavy users of marijuana
- Bronchitis, asthma, sore throat and chronic irritation of and damage to membranes of the respiratory tract
- These adverse events are additive with the simultaneous use of tobacco and marijuana.
What are carcinogens?
Marijuana smoke contains a _____________________________ than _____________ and is most likely to be a _________________
- higher amount of tars and carcinogens (cancer-causing compounds)
- Tobacco smoke
- Cancer causing product
Current studies suggest that cancers may occur more _______ with ________ than _________
Rapidly, Marijuana, Tobacco
Cancers due to smoking tobacco have a latency period of __________
True or false. There is a higher concentrations of carcinogens in marijuana smoke than in tobacco smoke.
True or False? The way of smoking marijuana smoke and tobacco smoke are different
Why is the way that marijuanna smokers smoke worse than the way tobacco smokers smoke?
The marijuana user inhales deeply and holds the smoke in the lungs in order to maximize the absorption of THC and other cannabinoids. Unfortunately, this process also enhances the amount of tars and carcinogens absorbed.
What are the effects of long-term effects of cannabis use on male fertility
- Decrease in sperm count
- Male fertility does not seem to be affected though
Other areas of concern regarding long-term effects of cannabis products are the effects on the developing fetus. What are some observations that have been made?
Developmental delays have been observed, but it is difficult to distinguish the effects of THC from those of other drugs, diet, and overall poor prenatal care.
Does tolerance occur with cannabinoids?
Yes, upon long-term use
Where affects are effected by tolerance of cannabinoids?
Tolerance occurs to the psychoactive properties of THC, but also to the effects on the cardiovascular system, the impairment of performance, and cognitive function.
Can physical dependance occur with high-dose use of cannabis products
What are some of the effects of dependance of cannabis products upon termination?
- Withdrawal symptoms
- Sleep disturbances, irritability, loss of appetite, nervousness, mild agitation, upset stomach, and sweating.
With regular use can psychological dependence develop
- There is often a persistent craving for the drug and the drug is the most important component in their life.
The dependence liability of cannabis products is _______________
low to moderate
Reinforcement is higher in Cannabis products? True/False/Why?
- The high is less with Cannabis products than other drugs like cocaine so therefore, reinforcement is much less
The inherent harmfulness of cannabis products is ____, especially for ________ of the drug (infrequent use)
Low, Low doses
What does the recent evidence of utero exposure say?
Recent evidence suggests that in utero exposure may lead to developmental and cognitive deficits in future years. Deficits in cognitive function have also been linked to chronic use.
THC Binds specifically to:
receptors located in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and other areas of the brain and spinal cord
What are the two receptors associated with THC? What is the difference?
- CB1 (Type 1)
- CB2 ( only found in the periphery)
- CB2 receptors do not appear to be involved in the psychotomimetic effects of THC, but may mediate some of its effects on the immune system.
The receptors located in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and other areas of the brain and spinal cord a designated _____________
CB1 or type 1 cannabinoid receptors
The CB1 receptor, when activated by anandamide or THC, __________________________________
inhibits the release of excitatory neurotransmitters
True/False --> THC has CNS depressant properties of the drug.
THC produces most of its effects by_______________________; it may well have other actions.
inhibiting the release of transmitters
Anandamide may be involved in ____________________
learning and memory processes
What substance was isolated and meets the criteria to be classified as the endogenous ligand?
What is an endogenous ligand?
an endogenous substance which acts by binding to this receptor
In the periphery, THC binds to _______________ on ____________ (cells involved in the immune response) and it is thought that the immunosuppressive properties of THC are mediated via this receptor.
CB2 receptors, lymphocytes