Lesson A1 - Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson A1 - Pharmacology Deck (208):
1

In ancient societies medicine men acted as...

Physicians + Priests

2

Medical practice was distorted by

Religion + Magic

3

Why did religion use to use intoxicating substances

To try and communicate to God

4

How did people use to try and communicate with God

Using intoxicating substances to by altering the state of consciousness

5

2 plants that use to be used to alter the state of consciousness to try and communicate with God and where were they from

- Psilocybe mushroom ( Mexico)
- Peyote cactus ( North America)

6

Psilocin comes from what plant and what was it used for

- Psilocybe mushroom
-Used to try and communicate with God in the past

7

What plant contains mescaline and where is it from and what was it's purpose

- Peyote cactus ( North America)
- Used to try and communicate with God in the past by altering the state of consciousness

8

Who said the following quote " all substances are poisons. There is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy"

- Paracelsus
- Swiss physician (16th century)

9

Who is Paracelsus

- Swiss physican in the 16th century
- He said " all substances are poisons. There is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy"

10

What were the purpose of ordeal trials

Identify sorcerers

11

What are the 2 things that can happen in an ordeal trial

-People vomited → and didn't die (were not classified as sorcerers)
-People who didn't vomit → (they were classified as sorcerers)

12

What is an ordeal trial?

- People of the tribe gathered in a circle and was given poison from a traditional healer to see who were sorcerers (people who could be the cause of epidemics and bad harvest)

13

What is it called when people gather in a circle and are given poison (usually done in West and Central Africa and Madagascar)

Ordeal trials

14

What is this called
-People vomited → and didn't die (were not classified as sorcerers)
-People who didn't vomit → (they were classified as sorcerers)

ordeal trial

15

Many drugs are derived from __________

Poisons

16

A poison that treats glaucoma

Physostigmine

17

What is Physostigmine used to treat?

Glaucoma

18

Where is Physostigmine derived from?

Calabar bean

19

The Calabar bean is the plant used to make what drug? What does this drug treat?

- Physostigmine
- Treats glaucoma

20

Natives dipped arrows in _____

Curare (poison)

21

What drug caused animal paralysis+death

- Curare
- From natives who dipped their arrows in it

22

What does Curare cause?

Animal paralysis + death

23

Nerves dealing with skeletal muscles relieve what?

Acetylcholine

24

What is released from nerve endings

Acetylcholine

25

_______ combines with receptors causing the muscle to contract

Acetylcholine

26

What does Acetylcholine do and cause?

Combines with receptors causing the muscle to contract

27

How does Curare interfere with Acetylcholine?

Combines with receptors instead of the usual acetylcholine

28

What combines with receptors instead of the usual Acetylcholine?

Curare

29

_________ prevents _______ from combining with muscle which prevents ________

Curare, Acetylcholine, Muscle contraction

30

_______ valuable drug to a skilled anaesthetist

Curare

31

Curare is a valuable drug to a __________

Skilled anaesthetist

32

Curare is a ______ that a _________ can use

Poison, killed anaesthetist

33

Giving small doses of _______ to a patients causes their muscles to relax allowing the surgeon to do better work

Curare

34

What does small doses of curare allow

Causes patients muscles to relax which allows the surgeon to do better work

35

Drug that let's a surgeon do better work

Curare

36

_______ is a fungus that grows on the ears of rye

Ergot

37

What is Ergot?

A fungus that grows on the ears of rye

38

Rye causes ________ which are ______ to humans

Alkaloids, toxic

39

Middle ages ______ was mixed with ______ and found it's way into bread

Ergot, Rye

40

What happened when Ergot was mixed with Rye?

Terrible epidemics = 250 years ago = 20,000 died in one region in Russia

41

What are the 3 symptoms of ergot poisoning?

1. Burning in the limbs (Holy Fire or Anthony's fire)
2. Constriction of blood flow (toes/limbs starved of blood supply = limbs become black = gradually died and fell off
3. Mental frenzy/Hallucinations + Convulsions

42

Some compounds of ________ resemble ______

Ergot, LSD

43

LSD is based of what?

Structure of ergot alkaloids

44

What could the following symptoms be caused by? (toes/limbs starved of blood supply = limbs become black = gradually died and fell off

- Ergot Poisoning
- Constriction of blood flow

45

Holy fire or Anthony's fire is caused from what?

Ergot Poisoning

46

What causes burning in the limbs?

Ergot Poisoning

47

What causes constriction of blood flow?

Ergot Poisoning

48

What causes Mental frenzy/Hallucinations + Convulsions?

Ergot Poisoning

49

Ergot Poisoning

Ergotamine

50

________used in the treatment of migraines

Ergotamine

51

__________ are caused by the pulsation of __________ which carry blood to the head

Migraines, Blood vessels

52

How does ergotamine work

- Constricts blood flow
- Constricts blood vessels which carry blood to the brain and reduce the amplitude of the pulsation of these blood vessels

53

Ergotamine _____(3 words)__________ and reduces the _________ of the _______ of these blood vessels

Constricts blood vessels, amplitude, pulsation

54

Medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period.

Obstetrics

55

Obstetrics

Medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period.

56

Ergonovine is used in what type of medicine

Obstetrics

57

___________ helps the uterus contract forcefully and helps stop bleeding

Ergonovine

58

What does Ergonovine do?

Helps the uterus contract forcefully and helps stop bleeding

59

Main use of Ergonovine

Arrest bleeding after childbirth

60

Ergonovine was used to _________ to speed up_________

contract the uterus, delivery

61

________ is no longer used to contract the uterus, speed up delivery and arrest bleeding after childbirth because it is too dangerous

Ergonovine

62

Why is Ergonovine no longer used

Too dangerous

63

Who classified drugs according to taste (Botanicals + Animal products) and what was the time period?

- 2700 BC
- Shen Nong

64

___________ classified drugs according to taste (Botanicals + Animal products) in 2700 BC

Shen Nong

65

In 2700 BC Shen Nong classified drugs according to ______ ( ________+_______)

Taste, Botanicals, Animal products

66

What was Ma Huang used for?

Fever, Cold, Influenza

67

_______ is classified as a medium drug and used to treat _______(3 things)______

- Ma Huang
- Fever, Cold, Influenza

68

What drug is isolated from Ma Huang? What is is used to treat?

Ephedrine, Asthma as a decongestant

69

Ephedrine is isolated from _______ and used to treat ________

Ma Huang, Asthma as a decongestant

70

Chinese traditional medicine still uses _________

Plants and animal products

71

Plants and animal products are used in what type of medicine?

Tradition Chinese Medicine

72

What type of medicine believed that milk from a mother that gave birth to a healthy child would heal a sick child

Early Egyptian Medicine

73

What would milk from a mother who gave birth to a healthy child do?

Heal a sick child

74

What does Early Egyptian medicine believe would heal a sick child

Milk from a mother who gave birth to a healthy child

75

Who is Ebers Papyrus?

Egyptian writing which was essentially a textbook of drug use for physicians

76

_____________ were Egyptian writings which were essentially a textbook of drug use for physicians

Ebers Papyrus

77

What type of drugs did the Egyptian writings, Ebers Papyrus contain?

Purgatives

78

_________ were contained in the Ebers Papyrus writing

Purgatives

79

________ drugs used to cause bowel movements

Purgatives

80

What are purgatives

Drugs used to cause bowel movements

81

Give 3 examples of purgatives

Caster oil, Figs, Senna

82

Caster oil, Figs, Senna are examples of _________

Purgatives

83

_______ containing products are still available today

Senna

84

What type of purgative is still used in product today = Caster oil, Figs or Senna

Senna

85

Where were Ordeal trials held?

West and Central Africa

86

Arrow poisons..... Where and who and what drug?

Amazon, Natives, Curare

87

Early Chinese medicine was practised by

Shen Nong

88

who is the Pupil of Aristole?

Theophrastus

89

Who is Theophrastus

Pupil of Aristole

90

Who wrote a textbook on therapeutics?

Theophrastus

91

Where is opium obtained from?

opium poppy (Papaver somniferium)

92

What is the Papaver somniferium

Opium poppy

93

How do you get opium

1. Cut poppy bulb open
2. Fluid comes out and dried up = contains opium

94

Opium is found to contain ___ % morphine

10

95

How much morphine is in opium?

10

96

10% amount of morphine found in ______

Opium

97

Opium contains ___ % codeine

0.5%

98

0.5% amount of codeine found in ______

Opium

99

Opium contains _______ % of ______ and _______ % of _______

10%, Morphine, 0.5% codeine

100

What is the use of Codeine and what drug is it in

Pain relief, Tylenol 1

101

Tylenol 1 contains

Codeine

102

Morphine can ______ of very great ______

relieve pain, Intensity

103

What drugs only relieve mild to moderate pain?

Aspirin + Acetaminophen

104

Acetaminophen is a name for what brand name drug?

Tylenol

105

Tylenol also know as __________

Acetaminophen

106

What are Analgesics

Pain relieving drugs

107

Pain relieving drugs are called

Analgesics

108

_________ is the gold standard which other analgesics get compared to

Morphine

109

Morphine is the ____________ of _________ type medications

Gold standards, Analgesics

110

Morphine can be used to treat anxiety --> true or false?

True, however there are better drugs for this now

111

Morphine can be used to treat ________

Anxiety, however there are better drugs for this now

112

Morphine can be converted into ________

Heroine

113

________ can be converted into Heroine

Morphine

114

Drug with a high abuse risk and that is not used in therapeutics

Heroin

115

Drug that is only available in Canada for the treatment of terminally ill Cancer patients

Heroin

116

Debate going on over if _________ has an advantage over _________

Morphine, Heroin

117

How does Morphine work?

1. Combines with receptors in the nervous system
2. These receptors are usually utilized by relieving chemicals produced in the NS

118

The Colchicum plant was introduced to treat what?

Gout

119

What plant was used to treat gout?

Colchicum plant

120

What chemical was extracted from the colchicine plant

colchicine (still used for gout)

121

What is a major problem today

People using too many drugs

122

Why is it dangerous to use too many drugs in a patient?

- Drugs can interact
- Create toxic effects

123

Who said " Never used two drugs where one will do"

Maimonides = scholar

124

Maimonides = scholar said what?

" Never used two drugs where one will do"

125

Digitalis purpurea is also know as

Foxglove

126

Foxglove is also know as ___________

Digitalis purpurea

127

Who is William Withering

- Physician + Botanist
- Introduced Digitalis purpurea also know as Foxglove

128

What did William Withering introduced in 1785?

Digitalis purpurea also know as Foxglove

129

Where does the digitalis purpurea (foxglove) get it's name from?

The flowers are purple + shaped like fingers

130

Who said " Has power over the motion of the heart to a degree not yet observed in any other medicine."

William Withering

131

What did William Withering say?

Talking about digitalis purpurea (foxglove)
- " Has power over the motion of the heart to a degree not yet observed in any other medicine."

132

What type of drugs are useful for patients with certain forms of heart disease?

Digitalis drugs

133

_________ type of drugs are for patients with certain forms of heart disease?

Digitalis drugs

134

How does the heart muscle work?

- Heart muscle is stretched by blood entering the heart → contracts forcefully → eject blood with great force
- Medications increase the performance of the heart

135

Certain heart conditions have a problem with what?

- Can't expel blood with as much force → the flow of blood therefore is decreased through the small blood vessels
- Entering the heart → contracts forcefully → eject blood with great force
- Medications increase the performance of the heart

136

What medication do doctors use to treat certain heart conditions?

Digoxin (Lanoxin)

137

What is Nitroglycerin?

- Explosive material → used to make dynamite
- Treatment for → Angina pectoris

138

__________ is latin for " Chocking in the chest"

Angina pectoris

139

___________ is an explosive material used to make dynamite and is used for the treatment of Angina pectoris

Nitroglycerin

140

What is the Latin word for "Chocking in the chest"

Angina pectoris

141

Who suggested to use Amyl Nitrite to treat angina pectoris (chocking in the chest)

Lauder Brunton

142

_____________ suggested to use ___________ to treat angina pectoris (chocking in the chest)

Lauder Brunton, Amyl Nitrite

143

What does a amyl nitrite do?

- Lower blood pressure (Animals + men)
- Effects were short --> longer acting form wanted

144

What did William Murrel do in 1879?

Showed that nitroglycerin caused similar effects to amyl nitrate but longer acting

145

What is the benefit of nitroglycerin over amyl nitrate

Longer acting

146

Who showed that nitroglycerin caused similar effects to amyl nitrate but longer acting and in what year?

William Murrel in 1879

147

What causes angina pectoris?

Not having enough oxygen available to the heart muscle

148

_____________ is when their is not enough oxygen available to the heat muscle

Angina pectoris

149

What does nitroglycerin do?

- Dilates (opens up) blood vessels in the heart + other places in the body
- Increases the supply of oxygen to the heart and decreases the oxygen requirements of the heart --> relieving pain

150

What dilates (opens up) blood vessels in the heart + other places in the body and therefore Increases the supply of oxygen to the heart and decreases the oxygen requirements of the heart --> relieving pain

Nitroglycerin

151

What is still the drug of choice for treating angina pectoris?

Nitroglycerin

152

Quinine is a constituent of the bark of the _______________ located in _________

Cinchona tree, South America

153

What is the active principle from the Cinchona bark?

Quinine

154

Quinine is the active principle from the ______________

Cinchona bark?

155

What was Quinine used to treat?

Malaria

156

Malaria was treated with ____________

Quinine (Active principle of the Cinchona bark)

157

What is a close relative of Quinine?

Quinidine

158

Quinidine is a close relative of __________

Quinine

159

What was Quinidine used to treat?

Treatment of certain heart rhythms

160

What is arrhythmias

Disorder of heart rhythm

161

_____________ is the disorder of heart rhythm

Arrhythmias

162

What year was Reserpine + Chlorpromazine introduced?

1953

163

The introduction of Reserpine + Chlorpromazine brought major changes in the treatment of ______________

Mental patients

164

Where and what did the Rauwolfia plant do?

India, Reduce tension + Anxiety + Lower blood pressure

165

In the 1950's a swiss pharmaceutical company isolated the chemical from the ___________ plant and the chemical was ___________

Rauwolfia, Reserpine

166

What were the effects of Reserpine on Monkeys+dogs?

Turned originally fierce and aggressive ones into calm+tranquil within a few days

167

___________ turned originally fierce dogs and monkeys and aggressive ones into calm+tranquil within a few days

Reserpine

168

_________ allowed patients who were difficult to manage to return home and live at peace with their families

Reserpine

169

What drug was preferred over Reserpine for the management of mental illness?

Chlorpromazine

170

Chlorpromazine was preferred over __________ for the management of mental illness?

Reserpine

171

Why is Chlorpromazine preferred over ____________

Reserpine, Because it is difficult to find the right dose of Reserpine

172

It is difficult to find the right dose of ____________

Reserpine

173

2 drugs that were introduced that had a socially beneficial effect

Reserpine, Chlorpromazine

174

Chlorpromazine and Reserpine were 2 drugs that had a __________________________

Socially beneficial effect

175

In 1942 Albert Hofmann was responsible for for synthesizing what drug?

LSD

176

What does LSD stand for?

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

177

____________ is similar in chemical structure to ergotamine and ergonovine

LSD

178

LSD similar in chemical structure to ___________ and _____________

Ergotamine, Ergonovine

179

Who was the quote by and what did he ingest? "Last Friday, April 16, 1943, I was forced to stop my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and to go home, as I was seized by a peculiar restlessness associated with a sensation of mild dizziness. On arriving home, I lay down and sank into a kind of drunkenness which was not unpleasant and which was characterized by extreme activity of imagination."

Albert Hofmann, LSD

180

Who is the father of chemotherapy? Where and when was he born?

Paul Ehrlich, Germany in 1854

181

Who designed complexes of arsenic and organic molecules (organoarsenicals) which selectively bound to parasites.

Paul Ehrlich ( Father of chemotherapy)

182

Paul Ehrlich designed complexes of arsenic and organic molecules (organoarsenicals) which selectively bound to parasites lead to what discovery? In what century?

Cure of syphilis in the early 20th century

183

Who's studies lead to a cure of syphilis?

Paul Ehrlich

184

Who introduced sulfa drugs? When and where?

Gerard Domagk, 1930's in Germany

185

The introduction of sulfa drugs in the 1930 lead to the first _________________ for the treatment of ___________________

Synthetic drugs, bacterial disease

186

The introduction of ____________ in the 1930 lead to the first synthetic drugs for the treatment of bacterial disease

Sulfa drugs

187

Who is Alexander Fleming?

Discovered the first antibiotic (penicillin) --> - St. Mary's Hospital, London, 1929.

188

Who discovered the first antibiotic?

Alexander Fleming

189

What was the first antibiotic discovered?

Penicillin

190

What was the major use of Penicillin?

-Major use was in the therapy of disease caused by gram-positive bacteria

191

Who is Selman Waksman?

Discovered streptomycin in 1943

192

What was that discovery that was the turning point in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis and diseases caused by gram-negative bacteria

Streptomycin ( Discovered by Selman Waksman)

193

Who suggested and showed in the 1800 that nitrous oxide had the ability to prevent pain?

-Humphrey Davy (British scientist)

194

Nitrous oxide was also known as ____________ in the 1840's

Laughing gas

195

Who gave demonstrations in the 1840's nitrous oxide (laughing gas)

Colton (Chemist lecturer)

196

In a demonstration of laughing gas someone in the audience participated and tried to take it and started to fight someone and cut his leg open but didn't feel any pain --> who was really impressed?

Wells (Dentist)

197

Who tried nitrous oxide in teeth extraction and found it really useful and said " A new era in Tooth-Pulling)

Wells (Dentist)

198

_______ had similar properties to nitrous oxide

Ether

199

Who had a intense interest in Anaesthesia and practiced it on himself + animals?

Morton

200

What did Morton ask his professor while in medical school?

Requested approval to try ether in surgery

201

Where was the first operation under anaesthesia

Massachusetts General Hospital

202

Who said This is no humbug, I have seen something today that will go around the world." and what was he referring to?

Professor of Morton, First operation under anaesthesia

203

Psilocybin, Psilocin, Mescaline, LSD are examples of what type of drug?

Hallucinogens

204

Morphine, Codeine, Heroin, Aspirin, Acetaminophen are examples of what type of drug?

Analgesics (Pain relieving drugs)

205

Digoxin, Nitroglycerin, Amyl Nitrire, Quinidine, Reserpine are examples of what type of drugs?

Cardiovascular

206

Organoarsenicals, sulfa, penicillin, streptomycin are examples of what type of drug?

Antimicrobial

207

Nitrous oxide and ether are examples of what type of drug?

Anaesthetics

208

Chlorpromazine, reserpine are drugs used in what?

Psychiatry