Flashcards in Lesson E5 - Drugs in Sports Deck (52)
The modern era of performance-enhancing substances started in the early ____ with the use of ____________ and __________ and use increased rapidly until the sports regulatory bodies banned these substances.
- anabolic steroids
What was the reason for banning performance enhancing substances?
- It was unethical
- Every athlete should compete on their own ability
- Competition should compare the athletes, not the team of doctors, biochemists and pharmacologists behind the athlete.
What has sports regulatory bodies introduced to enforce the ban of performance enhancing substances?
- Random doping control (random drug tests)
Name 6 ways drugs are used in sports?
1. Reduce pain and inflammation
2. Reduce pain and inflammation
3. Increase strength
4. Alter the heart rate
5. Reduce body weight
What drugs are used to reduce pain and inflammation in sports?
- Local anesthetics, narcotics, and anti-inflammatory steroids (cortisone).
What drugs are used to increase speed and endurance in sports?
- Amphetamines and its derivatives
- Blood doping
What drugs are used to increase strength in sports?
- Anabolic steroids
- Growth hormone
What drugs are used to alter the heart in sports?
- Beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs (propranolol)
- Used in precision sports
What drugs are used to reduce body weight in sports?
- Diuretics = used to reduce body water = reduce body weight
What drugs are used as sedatives in sports?
The benzodiazepines (diazapam, also known as Valium)
- Stacking is the process of using several different drugs in the same class, e.g. simultaneous use of three anabolic steroids. - - The body may eliminate each drug at a rate independent of the other, and by using smaller doses of three separate drugs, the athlete can stop the drugs closer to the competition and they will be removed from the body prior to the competition.
- Pyramiding is the process of starting with small doses and building to a large dose for maximal effect, then tapering to smaller doses and stopping the drug just before the competition. The lower dose is eliminated quickly and the athlete is drug-free at competition.
Define doping control
- Is the process of measuring the drug in urine
- Masking is the process of taking a second drug to "mask" the detection of the banned drug in
Explain the British study of Amphetamines on endurance (Exercise bike)
- Amphetamines increased the endurance of the athletes
- Exercise bike
- The duration of performance was extended by about 40% when 10 mg of methamphetamine was administered
- That is, as the athletes were nearing exhaustion, 10 mg of methamphetamine allowed them to continue.
What have the studies on amphetamines and speed concluded?
- Amphetamines make you faster
- 14 of 15 swimmers were faster
- 73% of runners improved their times
- Most shot putters increased their throwing distance
The ________ increase produced by _________, especially in the elite athlete at the peak of training, may move the athlete from 6th or 10th position to the gold medal.
What are androgenic effects of a compound?
Androgenic effect of a compound is the effect on secondary male sex characteristics
Testosterone, the male sex hormone, has both _________ and ________ properties
Anabolic steroids are compounds that have reduced ________________compared to ___________, but this separation is by no means complete.
- Androgenic effects
What are anabolic steroids used for?
- Used by athletes to increase muscle mass and strength
- They are also used to enhance physical appearance
Why did the studies in the 1990's not demonstrate a clear response of the anabolic steroids?
- Low doses were used
- Athletes use large doses
- Ethics prevents the use of large doses in studies
True or false? Trained athletes may respond differently to anabolic steroids than untrained athletes?
Early study on anabolic steroids showed that it was apparent that weight lifters benefited, especially in the ______________ events where they could lift a greater weight. The other observation that was important was that the ______________ between training sessions was reduced. The athlete could train harder and longer.
- Single repetition
- Recovery period
Recent studies have demonstrated that anabolic steroids can increase both the ______ and the ________ of the athlete, but not __________________
- aerobic performance (e.g. long distance running).
Name and explain 3 ways that anabolic steroids increase help increase the size and weight of an individual
1. They produce an anti-catabolic response. As the athlete trains, he/she reaches a plateau or point where more muscle is used as fuel or broken down as is produced in response to training. The athlete trains so hard that he/she uses protein from the muscle to fuel that training. This action is blocked by the anabolic steroids.
2. They produce an anti-catabolic response. As the athlete trains, he/she reaches a plateau or point where more muscle is used as fuel or broken down as is produced in response to training. The athlete trains so hard that he/she uses protein from the muscle to fuel that training. This action is blocked by the anabolic steroids.
3. Motivational responses also contribute to the overall effect. Anabolic steroids can produce aggressive behaviour, a condition called “roid rage”. This aggressive behaviour is beneficial for most sports, especially football.
_____ to ________doses of anabolic steroids have ________effects on the average adult
True or false? Effect on inexperienced weight lifters is less than a good exercise program.
________ yield significant increases in ________________ and increase in strength (in trained athlete at ______).
- Large doses
- Lean body mass
True or false? The aggressive behaviour induced by the anabolic steroids contribute to their performance enhancement effects. What is the aggressive behaviour called?
- Roid Rage
True or false? A diet high in protein is required for the anabolic steroids to be fully effective.
Name 4 things that anabolic steroids can cause in men (4 toxicities)
- Reduced testosterone levels
- Altered liver function
- Mood swings
- Cardiovascular disease
Why do anabolic steroids Reduced testosterone levels and what does this cause?
- Anabolic steroids block the release of GNRH and hence FSH and LH, leading to a reduction in sperm production and testosterone levels
- The reduced testosterone levels can lead to infertility, reduced libido and impotence.
Anabolic steroids are associated with altered liver function what are some of the things this can cause?
- Liver failure
- Liver Cancer
True or false? Users of anabolic steroids have experienced aggressive behaviour and mood swings.
Why can anabolic steroids cause cardiovascular disease?
- The anabolic steroids increase the plasma levels of low density lipoproteins (bad cholesterol) and decrease the levels of high density lipoproteins (good cholesterol).
- This places the user at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease.
What are some of the effects of anabolic steroids in women
- Should have the same effects on performance as in males
- Increase in facial and body hair, a lowered voice, enlarged clitoris, and courser skin
- Amenorrhea, increased libido, increased aggression, and acne
- These effects may or may not be reversible upon cessation of the drug.
True or false? The effects of anabolic steroids in women may or may not be reversible once stopped?
- True (People don't know)
What are the point of designer steroids and name a drug
- They do not get caught in drug tests
What are Beta-Blockers used for? Name a drug.
- Propranolol blocks the beta adrenoceptor in the heart and regulates the heart beat
- The heart beat becomes slower and steadier and not influenced by the anxiety of competition
- It is used by precision sports such as shooting; they attempt to pull the trigger between heart beats in order that the heart beat does not alter the precision of the shot.
What are Benzodiazepines used for in sports?
- Drugs such as Valium are used to reduce anxiety during competition
- Used by ski jumpers
What are growth hormones used for in sports?
- Human growth hormone will increase muscle mass and, in turn, strength.
- It is probably not as effective as the anabolic steroids, but if used in appropriate doses, gives a response
- It is not easily detected as it is cleared by the body rapidly.
What is an advantage of taking growth hormone over steroids for athletes
- It is not easily detected as it is cleared by the body rapidly
- Thus, an athlete could take growth hormone to build muscle mass, and if the drug was stopped two days before the competition, it would not be detected. Newer techniques are better at detecting the drug a bit longer.
Explain blood doping and why is it useful?
- This technique involves collecting the athletes own blood which is infused just before the competition.
- This leads to enhanced hemoglobin concentrations and enhanced oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
What is Erythropoietin used for?
- Protein hormone that stimulates red blood cell formation
- Leads to the formation of more than normal read blood cells and enhanced carrying capacity of the blood
What was the red cell stimulant of choice during the Salt Lake City Olympics.
Darbepoietin, a modified erythropoietin
How are diuretics used in sports?
- Diuretics are used to reduce body water to be able to compete at a lower weight class.
What does the drug probenecid do?
- Probenecid block the urinary excretion of other drugs and thus reduce their levels in the urine to concentrations which may not be detected.
True or false? Caffeine cannot be found in blood in levels that exceed those expected from the ingestion of a couple of cups of coffee.
All mild stimulants are banned, including __________.
True or false/Why? In Canada, DHEA is a drug and is banned for athletic use.
- Because DHEA is a precursor to testosterone