Leukemia Flashcards Preview

Post Midterm Patho > Leukemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Leukemia Deck (27):
1

Define Hematopoesis

The production of blood cells and platelets, which occurs in the bone marrow.

2

Can any cell in the formation of blood cells and platelets become malignant?

Yes!

3

Define leukemia.

Proliferation of malignant leukocytes present in circulation.

4

What can these malignant leukocytes infiltrate?

Tissues.

5

Leukemias are classified as..
Acute _______ or ___________
Chronic ___________ or _________

Acute lymphocytic or Myelogenous
Chronic lymphocytic or Myelogenous

6

What would a lymphocytic leukemia involve?

Lymphocytes

7

What would a myelogenous leukemia involve?

Monoctyes and Granularcytes

8

Acute Leukemias are known to be aggressive and....

immature (blast) cells
aka primitive cells

9

Chronic Leukemias are known to be less aggressive and....

Mature cells.

10

What is the Etiology of Leukemia?

- Cells that regulate division are mutated
- Idiopathic (not sure what causes it/what gene it is)

11

What are the risks of that can lead to Leukemia? (3)

1. Genetic Predisposition
2. High levels of radiation
3. Immunodeficiency (T-Cell leukemia virus)

12

What would be an example of high levels of radiation that could lead to leukemia?

Weekly X-rays

13

How can non malignant blood cells be affected?

Bone marrow = restricted space... Therefore less space for non malignant cells.
The malignant cells use resources, therefore problem making non malignant cells (ex. RBS or WBC)

14

Since the non malignant blood cells are affected, what does this cause?

- Impaired IR
- Decreased 02 supply (d/t less RBCS)

15

What are the 6 manifestations of leukemia?

1. Anemia
2. Thrombocytopenia
3. Leukopenia
4. Bleed gums, fever, generalized pain.
5. Fatigue, weakness, bruising
6. Recurrent infection (WHY!)

16

What does thrombocytopenia present as? What problem would this cause?

Decreased platelets. Problem with blood clotting.

17

What does leukopenia present as? What problem would this cause?

Decreased leukocytes. Problem with Immune response.

18

The fever caused by leukemia.. explain it.

woooops not sure yet

19

6 Treatment options for Leukemia are?

1. Radiation (free radicals cause necrosis of CA cell)
2. Chemotherapy (drugs target cell division and slow groth)
3. Blood Transfusion
4. Antimicrobials (think about the decrease IR d/t leukemia...)
5. Colony stimulating factors (CS)
6. Marrow Transplant?

20

What are the 3 phases involved in chemotherapy treatment of leukemia all related to?

Remission.

21

What are the 3 phases of chemotherapy treatment for leukemia?

1. Induction
2. Intensification
3. Maintenance

22

What does "Induction include?"

Prescribed dose, looking to see when remission occurs.

23

What does "Intensification" include?

One remission = reached, Increase the dose to intensify it.

24

What does "Maintenance" include?

Decreased dose to maintain remission for up to 2 years

25

What does CS factor lead to?

Colony formation, blood boosters, enhance proliferation of normal cells

26

What is caused by a marrow transplant?

It contains stem cells, therefore it should give rise to normal cells.

27

Are non malignant cells affected by leukeima? What does this cause to occur?

yes, WBC, Platelets, causes problems with infection and blood clotting