Flashcards in Neurological Infection Basics + Meningitis Deck (39):
Neurological infections are classified on what 2 things?
1. Anatomic location (within brain? SC? Meninges?)
2. Microbe (viral or bacterial)
What is the function of the meninges?
Primarily to protect the CNS
Is it easy for an infection to get into the cranium?
No, it is very difficult.
How could a pathogen enter? (4)
2. Fracture of Scalp
3. Extension (direct), contigous infection
4. Along an Axon
Explain how a pathogen would enter through the BBB.
If the BBB is compromised, microbe can enter
Explain how a pathogen would enter through direct extension. Provide an example.
Through contigous infection.
Ex: infection in middle ear can extend
Define contigous infection
Spread of infection along tissue planes or into the local blood or lymphatic system
Explain how a pathogen would enter along an axon?
Entrance through a cranial nerve
What is Bacterial Meningitis?
1. D/t what?
2. Is it life threatening?
1. bacterial infection
2. yes, it is life threatening
What is the Et of Bacterial Meningitis?
Bacteria within cranium
The bacteria that enters the cranium in bacterial meningitis varies across the lifespan (not always but usually).
What is the name for...
1. Streptococcus pneumonia
2. Neisseria meningitidis
3. Haemophilus influenzae
1.The bacteria in bacterial meningitis are specific bacteria which requires the name written to be what?
2. And on a computer to be what?
3. The first word, first letter should be what?
4. and the rest of the letters?
4. lower case
Are researchers aware of what different bacteria affect different age groups?
What is known about the 3 different microbes is that they often exist as what... close to where.....
Normal flora in the nasopharynx! Close to the cranium! WOW HEY!?
Since the normal flora in the nasopharynx are close to the cranium, a problem occurs if the migrate to the cranium. T or F.
What are the 4 predisposition to bacterial meningitis?
1. Head trauma
2. Neuro Sx
3. Congruent infection
4. Suppressed immunity
The Patho of Bacterial Meningitis involves 2 proccess. What are they?
1. Microbial proliferation and lysis
The microbial proliferation and lysis means what?
1. Proliferation = ?
2. Lysis = ?
Proliferation = thousands or millions of the microbe
Lysis = cells release content when they die which contains toxins, triggers inflammation
1. The inflammation in Bacterial meningitis involves what type of exudate?
2. The exudate moves where?
1. Purulent Exudate
2. Above / below meninges, on brain surface, and in the CSF
Is only the meninges affected in Bacterial meningitis?
What else is affected?
no! The exudate moves below and above, as well as on the brain surface and CSF.. therefore...
2. Vasculature, ventricles and subarachnoid space are also impacted
What does the subarachnoid space contain?
What are the Mnfts of Bacterial Meningitis? (4)
2. Headache, nausea, vomiting
3. Nuchal Rigidity, Back pain
4. (sort of Dx as well....) Brudzinski's sign and Kerig's Response
Explain where the nuchal rigidity is?
The nape: back of the neck
What are Brudzinski's sign and Kerig's Response testing for?
Explain a + Brudzinski's sign test:
Try to flex neck, will then have flexion of knees at hip when you try to do it (also involves pain)
Explain a + Kerig's Response test:
Trying to extend knee when flexed at hip (resistance and pain felt as well)
What is used in the Dx of Bacterial Meningitis? (3)
1. Hx & Px
2. C & S (of the microbe)
3. Analyze CSF
What is analyzing the CSF looking for?
1. Increase of what?
2. Decrease of what? WHY?
1. Increase of proteins, neutrophils and pus
2. Glucose (bacteria are utilizing the glucose those lil bastards)
What is the Tx for Bacterial Meningitis? (2)
Why are steroids used for the inflammation rather than NSAIDS?
Because this is a serious condition, therefore a strong medication is needed.
1. Define Viral Meningitis
2. Is it considered to be aseptic meningitis?
1. Inflammation of the meninges d/t viral infection
2. Yes it is considered to be aseptic meningitis
Which form of meningitis is more severe: Viral or Bacterial?
Bacterial is more severe
Does viral meningitis typically require anti viral medications? Why or why not? What does this mean you do to treat?
No, d/t the fact viral meningitis is self limiting. Means you monitor for complications
How long does it usually take for the body to overcome viral meningitis?
~ 2 weeks
What is the most common virus that causes viral meningitis?
What type of exudate is there in:
1. Bacterial Meningitis
2. Viral Meningitis
3. What does this mean?
1. Purulent exudate
2. Serous exudate
3. The purulent exudate has pus that is also taking up more space
What is severe complication that occur from viral meningitis?
Increased intercranial pressure which is life threatening
When looking at the CSF in a patient with viral meningitis, what would you expect to see:
1. Increase of what leukocyte?
2. Moderate increase of what? (why only moderate increase?)
3. What will happen to glucose? why?
2. moderate increase of protein (less severe infection, therefore less proteins, mostly in this case antibodies)
3. Glucose will stay the same (in bacterial meningitis the microbe utilizes the glucose, where as in viral meningitis the virus does not utilize the glucose)