Flashcards in LG1.1 Clinical Neuroscience: An Introduction Deck (52)
What is encephalopathy?
-Disease of the brain.
-Generally both cerebral hemispheres
-Whole brain dysfunction
What are the symptoms of encephalopathy?
-interferes with normal daily activities
-loss ability to solve problems
-May have loss of emotional control, seizures, loss of motor, control, loss of vision, ETC
What are examples of temporary Encephalopathy?
Metablolic, uremic, hepatic, infectious, medication induced.
Example of permanent encephalopathy?
Chronic traumatic (boxers/football players)
What type of encephalopathy is Alzheimer Disease?
A progressive Encephalopathy
What are general characteristics of Alzheimer Disease.
-Loss of smell
-Lapses in judgement
-subtle personality changes
-Loss of ability to perform simple activities of daily living
What is vascular (multi-infarction) dementia?
-Chronic Progressive Dementia
-From multiple small strokes over time
What is HIV encephalopathy?
-Chronic progressive Dementia
-From viral infection
Describe Huntingtons Disease?
-Progressive autosomal dominant disease.
-Causes personality changes, movement disorder, gait disturbance
-Bedridden and death after 15 years
Describe Rett Syndrome
- Genetic Encephalopathy from birth
-A genetic disorder, mainly females
-Genetic but not inherited
-12-18 months child is fine, then progressive deterioration.
-Decrease in memory, movements, coordination, communication, and seizures(increased)
What is the disfunction in Rett Syndrome?
-Locus coeruleus affected
-No Norepi produced
-Reduced/no distribution to cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum
What is the right side of the brain normally in charge of?
abstractions, creativeness, spatial sense, left side of body
What is the left side of the brain in charge of?
Lingual, academic, reasoning
What parts of the brain are considered the brainstem
Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
What are the 4 outer lobes of the brain?
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
What happened to Phineas Gage?
-Iron spike through head destroyed frontal cortex.
-Transformed from virtuous citizen to sociopathic drifter.
What are the function of the frontal lobe?
Personality, problem solving, spontaneity, initiation, judgment, impulse control, social and sexual behavior.
What happened to the pedophile school teacher?
-Large tumor in olfactory groove, displacing right obitofrontal cortex, capped by a large cystic portion.
-Tumor resected, pedophilloic urges stopped.
-Tumor regrew they returned
What were the main points of the Maureen O'Conner (San Deigo mayor) case?
i.Ran up gambling debt of $13 million; got caught transferring
ii.Had large brain tumor removed
iii.Large olfactory groove meningioma; affecting orbitofrontal cortex
iv.No longer compelled to gambling
Function of the temporal lobes?
-Processing auditory information
-comprehension of meaningful speech (mainly left hemispheric)
-memory, visual object recognition and long term storage of sensory input
Which side of the temporal lobes are dominant?
-Usually left side
What is the function of the dominant temporal lobe?
Perception of words, processing details, memory, auditory learning, complex memories, visual auditory processing
What is the function of the non-dominat lobe of the brain?
Perception of melodies, reading, facial expressions, visual learning
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
-processing of sensory information of sensory information of touch (right side of brain affects sensation on left side of body)
-Taste, temperature Language, processing/integration.
If you have issues wit the parietal lobe what are common issues that arise?
1. Inability to write
2. Lack of recognition
3. Spatial dysfunction (right/left confusion)
4. Difficulties with self perception (hemi-neglect)
What is the function of the smallest lobe of the brain?
-Primary visual cortex: visual perception
What is agnosia?
inability to interpret sensations and hence to recognize things, typically as a result of brain damage
What would a lesion in the occipital lobe normally cause?
cause color agnosiia, movement agnosia, agraphia
What are the structures of the subcortical area of the brain?
What is the function of the hippocampus?
temporally/essential to formation of lasting memories
What is the function of the limbic system?
Produces emotional/instinctual responses
What is the function of the thalamus?
relays sensory information (vision, hearing taste, touch)
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
control central emotions, organizes behaviors, hormone release
What is the function of the cerebellum?
-At base of brain
-Regulates muscular coordination, tone, posture.
What is the function of the pons?
Pathways from and to the thalamus/cortex/cerebellum, regulates respiration
What is the function of the medulla?
centers for vital functions (heart rate, breathing, swallowing), pathways to higher cortical areas from spinal cord.
What is the function of the midbrain?
Relay station for auditory and visual information, finer motor functions (red nucleus, substance nirgra)
What cranial nerves originate in the pons?
Cranial nerves V,VI, VII, and VIII
What cranial nerves originate from the medulla?
Lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, XII)
Where does pain and temperature cross the spinal cord?
-Crosses right away at the same level as origination
Where do the spinal nerves travel from source to the brain?
From the peripheral nerves thru the spinal cord to the thalamus then parietal cortex
Where does vibration, position, and deep touch normally cross?
-Cross higher up in low medulla
Where does the trigeminal nerve (Cr N V) cross?
Cross in the pons
What would a mononeurpathy multiplex involve?
More than one peripheral nerve lesions
What would a Polyneurpathy involve?
Generalized dysfunction of peripheral nervous system
What plexus is in the upper extremities?
What plexus is in the lower extremities?
Lumbosacral Plexus (anterior/posterior divisions) to peripheral nerves (L4-S3 sciatic nerve)
What type of peripheral sensor receptor is a Meissner's corpuscle?
What type of peripheral sensor receptor is nociceptors?
What type of peripheral sensor receptor is a Pacinian corpuscle?
What type of peripheral sensor receptor is a thermoreceptor?