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Calorie needs for infants

80-120 calories per kg (2.2 lb) body weight.


First 6 months breastfed infants need how many calories?

108 cal/kil


Recommended protein intake for infants 0-6mos

2.2 g/kg of body weight


Recommend protein intake for infants 6-12mos

1.6 g/kg body weight


% of fat provide by breastmilk



Stage of life with highest metabolic rate



Urea cycle disorder that requires protein restriction.



Rare genetic condition of protein metabolism in which breakdown by-products build up in blood & urine, causing coma & death if untreated.

Maple Syrup Urine Disease


DRIs have been established for the energy needs of young children. The formula for EER for children ages 13-36mos is:

(89 X weight [kg] -100) +20 (kcal for energy deposition)


The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children is administered by the Food & Nutrition Service of the USDA.



The Farmer’s Market Nutrition Program is a special season program for WIC.



Administered by the U.S. Dept of Health & Human Services. Comprehensive child development programs that serve kids from birth to 5 y/o, pregnant women & their families.

Head Start & Early Start


(Formerly the Food Stamp Program) – SNAP is administered by the USDA, designed to help adults in low-income households buy food.

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program


Sum of dietary fiber & functional fiber

Total Fiber


Complex carbohydrates and lignins naturally occurring & found mainly in the plant cell wall. Dietary fiber cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes.

Dietary Fiber


Nondigestable carbohydrates including plant, animal or commercially produced sources that have beneficial effects in humans.

Functional Fiber


“Tanner Stages” is a scale of secondary sexual characteristics that allows health professionals to assess the degree of pubertal maturation among adolescents, regardless of chronological age.

Sexual Maturation Rating (SMR)


5 leading causes of death in adults

1. Cancer
2. Heart disease
3. Stroke
4. Diabetes
5. Liver disease


Adult Macros

Fat - 20-35%
Protein 10-35%
Carbohydrates 45-65%


BMR Calculation for Women

(10 X wt) + (6.25 X ht) – (5 X age) - 161


BMR Calculation for Men

(10 X wt) + (6.25 X ht) – (5 X age) + 5


Elderly are at high risk for deficiency of

calories, calcium, iron, magnesium, folate, thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6) & cyanocobalmin (B12), vitamin C & vitamin D.


During the past 50 years, the average total caloric intake among infants in the United States:

a. Has not changed
b. Has decreased
c. Has increased
d. Is not possible to assess

c. Has increased


The digestive system during infancy can be accurately described by which statement?

a. GI problems often interfere with health & growth in young infants.
b. The digestive tract is not completely developed for digestion for months after birth.
c. Infant stools change based on the ability of the intestinal villa to absorb nutrients.
d. Regarding hunger & satiety cues, parenting skills to read them develop more slowly than the infants’ skills to give them.

d. Regarding hunger & satiety cues, parenting skills to read them develop more slowly than the infants’ skills to give them.


What factors make nutritional requirements higher for an infant now 8 months of age who was born at 29 weeks gestation?

a. Being born so early resulted in less body fat & nutrient reserves.
b. The persistence of newborn reflexes.
c. More frequent illnesses due to the immaturity of
the immune system.
d. The immaturity of the GI tract lessens nutrient absorption

a. Being born so early resulted in less body fat & nutrient reserves.


True or False :

According to food consumption surveys, young children exceed estimated needs for calories.



The best predictor of energy needs during adolescence is:

a. Chronologic age
b. Change in body weight
c. Increase in height
d. Muscle growth

c. Increase in height


The nutrients most likely to be missing from the diets of vegan adolescents are:

a. A, D, E & Zinc
b. B6, D, B12, & Calcium
c. B6, B12, E & Choline
d. A, D, E & Iron

b. B6, D, B12, & Calcium


Compared to his peers, a healthy 15-year old male who is a competitive weight lifter should consume more protein and more:

a. Minerals
b. Carbohydrates
c. Fat
d. Carbohydrates & fat

b. Carbohydrates


The caloric equivalent of one gram of lean tissue is approximately:
a. 1 Kcal
b. 2 Kcal
c. 4 Kcal
d. 9 Kcal

a. 1 Kcal