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Flashcards in Fundamental Principles of Nutrition Deck (44)
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1

Data supporting the hypothesis that dietary composition influences the development of cancer include observations that:

a. high fiber diets are associated with an increased incidence of colon cancer
b. dietary carcinogens protect against the effects of environmental carcinogens
c. nutrient deficiencies always promote tumor growth
d. cruciferous vegetables may protect against tumorgenesis

d. cruciferous vegetables may protect against tumorgenesis

2

Diet assessment of a population can be used to:

a. identify common dietary problems
b. solve common dietary problems
c. implement guidelines for individuals
d. determine general characteristics

d. determine general characteristics

3

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has which of the following objectives?

a. Ongoing collection of health data from Americans <65 years of age
b. Identification of low birth weight infants
c. Treatment for elevated blood lipid levels
d. Collection of dietary data using 24-hour recalls

d. Collection of dietary data using 24-hour recalls

4

During the past 50 years, the average total caloric intake among infants in the United States:

a. has not changed
b. has decreased
c. has increased
d. is not possible to assess

c. has increased

5

During gestation, dietary requirements are increased for:

a. vitamin A
b. pyridoxine and pantothenic acid
c. thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin
d. vitamin D

c. thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin

6

During gestation, the fetus receives nourishment primarily from:

a. nutrient secretions from fallopian tube cells
b. tropoblast cells of the decidua basilis
c. the amniotic fluid
d. the placental circulation

d. the placental circulation

7

The fetus acquires most of its calcium during:

a. the first trimester
b. the second trimester
c. the third trimester
d. maternal dietary calcium excess

c. the third trimester

8

Compared to the requirements of a non-pregnant adult woman, the dietary requirements for several vitamins are increased during gestation; among these are the requirements for:

a. vitamin A
b. pyridoxine and pantothenic acid
c. thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin
d. vitamin D

c. thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin

9

Compared to commercial infant formulas, human milk has a greater concentration of:

a. cholesterol
b. protein
c. casein
d. linoleic acid

a. cholesterol

10

Compared to his peers, a healthy 15-year old male who is a competitive weight lifter should consume more protein and more:

a. minerals
b. carbohydrates
c. fat
d. carbohydrates and fat

b. carbohydrates

11

Aging is associated with several changes in metabolism, including:

a. increased basal metabolic rate, reduced muscle mass, and increased fat deposition.
b. increased basal metabolic rate, reduced muscle mass, and decreased fat deposition.
c. decreased basal metabolic rate, reduced muscle mass, and decreased fat deposition.
d. decreased basal metabolic rate, reduced muscle mass, and increased fat deposition.

d. decreased basal metabolic rate, reduced muscle mass, and increased fat deposition.

12

Activity for Daily Living

Little to no exercise

Daily kilocalories needed = RMR x 1.2

13

Activity for Daily Living

Light exercise
(1-3 days per week)

Daily kilocalories needed = RMR x 1.375

14

Activity for Daily Living

Moderate exercise
(3-5 days per week)

Daily kilocalories needed = RMR x 1.55

15

Activity for Daily Living

Heavy exercise
(6-7 days per week)

Daily kilocalories needed = RMR x 1.725

16

Activity for Daily Living

Very heavy exercise
(Twice per day, extra heavy workouts)

Daily kilocalories needed = RMR x 1.9

17

An exercise program combining aerobic and strength exercises will increase metabolic rate by about:

a. 10% or less
b. 25% to 50%
c. 50% to 100%
d. 100% or more

a. 10% or less

18

The consumption of 1750 excess Kcal will result in the deposition of new body fat weighing:

a. 17.5 g
b. 175 g
c. 227 g
d. 454 g

c. 227 g

19

The caloric equivalent of one gram of lean tissue is approximately:

a. 1 Kcal
b. 2 Kcal
c. 4 Kcal
d. 9 Kcal

a. 1 Kcal

20

Daily consumption of 50 Kcal of excess dietary energy for a year will produce a weight gain of:

a. 4 to 5 pounds
b. 10 to 12 pounds
c. 20 to 25 pounds
d. 40 to 50 pounds

a. 4 to 5 pounds

21

Ketones result from the metabolism of:

a. fatty acids
b. simple sugars
c. amino acids
d. complex carbohydrates

a. fatty acids

22

Most circulating cholesterol is eliminated from the body after metabolism to:

a. lipoproteins
b. phospholipids
c. fecal fat
d. bile acids

d. bile acids

23

Vitamin B12 is a required cofactor in the biochemical pathway through which glucose is produced from the amino acid:

a. alanine
b. valine
c. methionine
d. tyrosine

b. valine

24

The size of the free amino acid pool in the human body is regulated by the rate of:

a. oxidation of amino acids
b. synthesis of nonessential amino acids
c. urinary excretion of amino acids
d. skeletal collagen metabolism

a. oxidation of amino acids

25

The decarboxylation of pyruvate involves a sequence of reactions that require, as coenzymes, the four vitamins:

a. thiamin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin and vitamin B12
b. thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B12
c. thiamin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and niacin
d. biotin, niacin, pantothenic acid and vitamin B12

c. thiamin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and niacin

26

Examples of dietary nutrients that are not absorbed directly into the enterohepatic portal blood system include:

a. amino acids
b. medium-chain fatty acids
c. monosaccharides
d. long-chain fatty acids

d. long-chain fatty acids

27

The ingestion of a meal containing large amounts of saturated fat will result in a transient increase in the serum concentration of:

a. chylomicrons
b. low-density lipoproteins
c. high-density lipoproteins
d. micelles

a. chylomicrons

28

The hormone responsible for the decrease in gastrointestinal smooth muscle tone and motility during pregnancy is:

a. estrogen
b. progesterone
c. placental lactogen
d. human chorionic ghonadotropin

b. progesterone

29

The product of enterokinase reactions is:

a. trypsin
b. chymotrypsin
c. pepsin
d. carboxypeptidase

a. trypsin

30

Glutamine is the primary energy source for the:

a. liver
b. heart
c. small intestine
d. brain

c. small intestine