Flashcards in Literature Deck (42)
Hesiod quote from Nicomachean Ethics,
Far best is he who knows all things himself;
Good, he that hearkens when men council right;
But he who neither knows, nor lays to heart Another’s wisdom, is a useless wight.
Aristotle quote about nobility
...nobility shines through when a man bears with resignation many great misfortunes, not through insensibility to pain but through nobility and greatness of soul.
sine qua non
rule of faith
MAGNA EST VERITAS ET PRAEVALEBIT
Truth is mighty and will prevail
the view that Christians are released by grace from observing the moral law
knowledge of God may be achieved through spiritual ecstasy, direct intuition, or special individual relations, especially the movement founded in 1875 as the Theosophical Society by Helena Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott (1832-1907)
“Theirs not to reason why,
Theirs not to make reply,
Theirs but to do and die.”
Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) in his famous battle poem, “The Charge of the Light Brigade”
• English poet
OMNIUM URBIS ET ORBIS ECCLESIARUM MATER ET CAPUT
“Of all the churches in the city and the world, the mother and head”
• inscribed over the main entrance of the cathedral church of St. John Lateran in Rome
Who said, “He who does not know the Scriptures, does not know the power and wisdom of God; ignorance of the Bible is ignorance of Christ”?
St. Jerome in the Preface to his Commentary on Isaiah
What are the four undeniable laws of logic?
• Law of non-contradiction
• Law of the excluded middle
• Law of identity
• Law of rational inference
How is an ‘exclusive sentence’ (‘none but’ or ‘only’) to be rearranged so that it can properly analyzed logically?
1) Change “none but” or “only” to “all”
2) switch the subject and predicate terms
Rearrange this proposition so that it can be properly analyzed: “Everyone except George became a Christian at last night’s meeting.”
• “All who are not George became a Christian at last night’s meeting”
• “George is not someone who became a Christian at last night’s meeting”
Which term of a categorical syllogism is never in the conclusion?
The middle term
How do you obvert a proposition?
In obversion we change the quality (affirmative or negative) without changing its meaning. So,
A obverts to E
E obverts to A
I obverts to O
O obverts to I
How do we convert a proposition?
We change the relation (order) of subject and predicate without changing its meaning
How do we contrapose a proposition?
First obvert the original statement; then, convert that statement; then, obvert that statement.
A contraposes to A
E and I do not contrapose
O contraposes to O
What are the three types of propositions used in a syllogism?
1) Hypothetical—“If this, then that”
2) Disjunctive—“Either this or that”
3) Categorical—“This is that”
What are the four parts of a categorical proposition?
Subject, Predicate, Copula and Quantifier
True or false: every syllogism is made up of propositions, and every proposition is made up of two terms?
What is the purpose of a syllogism?
It is the format used to put propositions together in order to analyze their relationships to see if they make sense
List all the forms of argument used in deductive logic
• hypothetical syllogisms
• disjunctive and conjunctive syllogisms
• enthymemes (abbreviations)
• sorites (heaps)
How many terms do hypothetical syllogisms contain?
What type of syllogism are hypothetical, disjunctive/conjunctive, dilemmas, and sorites?
Put this sentence in logical form:
‘Everyone except Christians are condemned’
• All who are not Christians are condemned (type A)
• No Christians are condemned (type E)
The relationship between a premise and a conclusion is called...
The process of reasoning from premise to conclusion is called...
Define epistemological realism
The belief that the object of human reason, when working properly, is objective reality
Define metaphysical realism
The belief that reality is knowable; that it includes an order