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Why did Constantine move the capital from Rome to Constantinople in 324?

• large Roman population in the Eastern Mediterranean w/Persia as its most dangerous enemy
• troops could be moved more quickly from there to Syria rather than from Milan
• frequent problems in the eastern provinces which required a response


What did Arius believe?

• Jesus was a secondary divinity, not of the same nature or essence as the Father; merely similar to God

• J did not exist before time, God the Father was the ruler and J subordinate


Reign of ‘Julian the Apostate’

AD 360-3

• tried to reinstate Greco-Roman paganism


• Gregory of Nyssa
• Basil the Great
• Gregory the Wonderworker
• Macrina the Younger
• Gregory of Nazianzen ‘The Theologian’

Which one is not a sibling?
Which one was a student of Origen?

Gregory the Wonderworker
(c. 210-260) was a student of Origen

Gregory the Theologian (d. 390) was a friend of Basil (d. 379) and Gregory of Nyssa
(c. 331-95)

• pioneers in early monasticism in Asia Minor, studied Origen and wrote against neo-Arianism


What was the Roman policy of tolerance towards Christians, drafted by Constantine and Licinius called, and what year?

Edict of Milan, AD 313


Strong, influential and aristocratic bishop of Milan who influenced emperor Gratian to adopt a pro-Nicene position by the end of 378 AD

Ambrose, baptized and consecrated bishop on December 8, 374 AD

• very successful in spreading Nicene Christianity in Milan

• supported by Augustine of Hippo as well as the strong, elite, pro-Nicene Christian community of Milan; it included a number of people deeply imbedded in the imperial bureaucracy and court (Cambridge, ch. 8)


Emperor, his mother, and year of the incident at the Episcopal Basilica of Milan; and reason for the showdown

Valentinian II, his mother Justina (anti-Nicene), during the Holy Week of 386 AD, for the celebration of Easter by the anti-Nicenes

• reason: in defense of Nicene orthodoxy and episcopal authority...Ambrose


Year of Ambrose of Milan’s death

397 AD


Constantine’s reign

AD 306-37


Year of Constantine’s victory at the battle of the Milvian Bridge? Who did he defeat?

AD 312

• defeated Maxentius (son of Maximian, former emperor of the West)


What is Invictus in English?



What happened to Maxentius and his army?

They were driven into the river Tiber and drowned with their horses and armor. Eusebius compares it with the chariots of Pharaoh, in his Ecclesiastical History.


In what year did Constantine become sole emperor?

AD 324


instinctu divinitatis

‘by divine inspiration’

Written on the Arch of Constantine of 315 in Rome, erected in memory of his victory over Maxentius in Rome in 312


What ethnicity and religion were the Vandals and when did they invade Carthage?

Germanic Arians, in 439 AD



Gnostic-type religion founded by Mani (d. 276) in Persia in 3rd century

• made extensive use of the Gospels and Paul’s letters due to his Judaeo-Christian upbringing

• taught a dualism of good (spirit) and evil (body), and an elaborate cosmogonic myth

• polytheistic but saw themselves as Christians

• Jesus not divine, and did not die on the cross, only feigned death

• combatted extensively by Augustine of Hippo


The only Pope to combat Manichaeism

Leo the Great (440-61)


The first list containing the 27 books of the NT

Athanasius of Alexandria in his Paschal letter of 367 AD


Jerome of Stridon

AD 347-419

• studied Cicero (rhetoric) in his secular education

• created the latin Vulgate in 405 AD, OT translated directly from the Hebrew texts along with his earlier revision of the Gospels


Ambrose of Milan

c. 339-97 AD

• bishop c. 374-97


Augustine of Hippo

AD 364-430

• taught rhetoric in Rome from 383; later took a professorship of rhetoric in Milan and met Bishop Ambrose, under whom he was baptized in 386; ordained priest in 391 and became bishop of Hippo in 396


How does rhetoric provide EV against Bauer’s thesis?

• even the Gnostics characterize themselves as being in the minority;

• the bulk of Celsus’ attacks on C are directed at orthodox C. He distinguishes orthodox C from heretical C and describes the split as a later development. To Celsus, orthodoxy was the majority


Who was Marshall Applewhite?

Leader of the UFO religious group ‘Heaven’s Gate’; they believed they would be transported to an alien space ship, upon death, that was following the Hale-Bopp comet in 1997. 39 of them committed mass suicide in 1997; they claimed to be following J and fulfilling the prophecies of Revelation


Gregory of Nazianzus


• studied rhetoric and philosophy in Athens, with Julian and Basil


John Chrysostom

c. 349-407 AD

• bishop of Constantinople 398-404 (pro-Nicene)


Theodoret of Cyrrhus

c. 383-460 AD, ‘the last apologist’

• educated at a monastic school in Antioch under John Chrysostom and Theodore of Mopsuestia

• bishop of Cyrrhus, Syria


When and where was the ‘Robber’ Synod?

Ephesus, 449 AD


What is the Tanakh?

The Hebrew Bible


What is the Torah?

the legal portion of the Hebrew Bible


What three main issues were addressed at the first Council of Nicaea (325 AD)?

1) the date of Easter

2) dispute of Arianism

3) episcopal succession: Meletius of Lycopolis vs. Alexander of Alexandria for the bishopric of Alexandria