Flashcards in Scripture Deck (178)
When did Emperor Commodus reign?
c. AD 180-192
• son of Marcus Aurelius
• Rom 1:26-27
• Jude 1:7
• Lev 18:22; 20:13
• 1 Cor 6:9-11
• 1 Tim 1:10
Five tenets of the extrinsic model of canon and several examples
1) clear distinction b/t scripture and canon (this helps the claim that the canon was an invention)
2)nothing in early Christianity which would have naturally lead to a canon
3) early Christians were averse to written documents
4) NT authors were unaware of their own authority
5) NT books were only first regarded as scripture at the end of the 2nd century (mainly a result of Irenaeus)
• reaction to Marcion’s heresies
• Irenaeus’s politics
• Constantine’s imperialism
• any activity imposed on the writings rather than a natural product of the writings themselves
• influence of Greek philosophy, which emphasized having a firm list of reliable writings (culminating w/Constantine through his intrusion into the affairs of the Church)
ESCHATOLOGICAL NATURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY
• Second Temple Jews were awaiting redemption (Isa 49:6; 52:8; Amos 9:11-15) and forgiveness (Jer 31:31-40) from God
• J fulfilled this promise
(1 Cor 10:11; Gal 3:14 [Isa 44:3]; Heb 1:2)
• OT Scriptures were unfinished
He [The Lord] does not delight in the strength of the horse; He does not take pleasure in the legs of a man. The Lord favors those who fear him, those who wait for his loving kindness.
One problem with the ontological definition:
• gives the impression that the canon was given by God to man with no historical development in the real world, that it was neat and tidy
Why are the Gospels formally anonymous?
They were intentionally written anonymously in order to resemble Old Testament Historical Books, which were anonymous (as opposed to the Prophets). It allowed the author to disappear and give priority to the subject matter. This placed them in the OT tradition.
AUTHORITY OF THE APOSTLES
• Mk 3:14-15 (J sent them out w/authority)
• Matt 10:20 (J says the Spirit speaks through them); 10:14 (divine judgment for those who don’t heed their words)
• Jn 14:26 (Spirit will teach them); 17:8, 18 (J affirms he delivered his msg to them and sent them out)
• Acts 10:41-42 (Peter claims the apostles were chosen by God to preach the apostolic msg)
• 2 Pet 3:2 (apostles’ words are Jesus’s words and on par w/OT prophets)
• 1 Thes 2:13 (Paul claims the apostolic msg is directly from God)
• 1 Cor 14:37 (“Lord’s commandment” is a ref to the commandments in the OT that came from God himself or Moses; Kruger, Question of Canon, ch 4)
DON’T GIVE UP ON GOOD WORKS
Let us not lose heart in doing good, for in due time we will reap if we do not grow weary
JESUS MAKES HIMSELF EQUAL WITH GOD
• For this reason therefore the Jews were seeking all the more to kill Him, because He not only was breaking the Sabbath, but also was calling God His own Father, making Himself equal with God. (John 5:18)
• “I and the Father are one” (John 10:30)
GENEROSITY AND GOOD WORKS
With good will render service, as to the Lord, and not to men, 8knowing that whatever good thing each one does, this he will receive back from the Lord, whether slave or free. Ephesians 6:7-8
7Each one must do just as he has purposed in his heart, not grudgingly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver. 2 Corinthians 9:7
When was the apocryphal Acts of Peter written?
c. AD 180-190
The apologist’s verse:
1 Peter 3:15 but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence
Evidence that the Gospel writers were aware of their apostolic authority:
• by design of the Gospels, such as literary inclusios that highlight links to eyewitness, inscriptional curses, general modeling after the OT books
3 pieces of EV w/in the NT itself of an emerging canon:
1) it refers to itself as Scripture
(2 Pet 3:16; 1 Tim 5:18);
2) alludes to a bi-covenantal canon in 2 Pet 3:2 by juxtaposing “prophets” and “apostles” as two equal sources of divine authority; also, 2 Cor 3:6 refers to “ministers of a new covenant” w/in a written letter and then juxtaposes that with “old covenant” in verse 14, another written document;
3) exhorts public reading of itself (Col 4:16; 1 Thes 5:27; 2 Cor 10:9; Rev 1:3), which was standard for OT Scriptures
Who developed the idea of the functional definition of canon and what is it?
• Brevard S. Childs (The NT as Canon: An Introduction, 1984)
• if the canon is regarded as Scripture or as textual body of religious norms by the early church, then it qualifies as canon
• no distinction b/t Scripture and canon
Thus says the Lord, your Redeemer, and the one who formed you from the womb, “I, the Lord, am the maker of all things, stretching out the heavens by Myself, and spreading out the earth all alone...”
Positive aspects of functional definition of canon:
• accurately captures historical reality that early Christians had an authoritative corpus of books long before the fourth century, regardless of whether there was complete agreement about the whole corpus;
• thus this definition does not diminish the perceived authority of the books prior to the fourth century;
• also, it does not inflate the role of official church declarations about the canon, as if the church suddenly established their authority
DO NOT ALTER GOD’S WORD (COVENANT)
• Deuteronomy 4:2; 12:32 (inscriptional curse)
• Proverbs 30:5-6
• Revelation 22:18-19 (Deut 28:58-59)
Why is Marcion’s ‘canon’ important in dating a NT canon?
Irenaeus writes that Marcon was guilty of ‘not acknowledging some books at all’, which means there was a larger corpus of NT books in existence before Marcion’s ‘canon’ of Luke and ten epistles of Paul.
What is our earliest known list of the canon?
THE MURATORIAN FRAGMENT
c. 180 AD
• published in 1740 by Ludovico Antonio Muratori, who discovered it
• 85 lines containing historical and theological commentary on the NT books (Metzger, The Canon..., ch 8)
• confirms scriptural status of 22 of the 27 book in NT: the four Gospels, Acts, the thirteen epistles of Paul, Jude, 1 and 2 John (poss 3 John), and Rev. Heb, James and 1 and 2 Peter are not mentioned, though it’s unclear why (Kruger, The Question of Canon, ch. 5)
What were the names of John the Baptist’s parents?
Zacharias and Elizabeth
What was Zacharias’ profession?
Pliny the Younger
Roman governor of Bithynia and Pontus in northern Asia Minor, under Emperor Trajan (AD 98-117)
• persecuted Christians (tortured some)
What is the Peshitta?
• Syrian Church’s version of the Bible, formed early fifth century.
• contains 22 of the 27 NT books (2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude and Revelation are absent)
• for all intents and purposes this closed the canon for the Syrian Church because after the Council of Ephesus (431 AD), East Syrians separated themselves as Nestorians from the Great Church. (Metzger, The Canon..., ch. 9)
• Syrian Church is divided b/t East (Nestorians) and West
Who originally developed the idea of the exclusive definition of the canon and what was it?
• Albert C. Sundberg in 1968
• argued a clear distinction B/T Scripture and Canon. Scriptural status was not enough and the term canon should be reserved for books which are part of set list, something which didn’t occur until at least the fourth century (Kruger, Question of Canon, ch. 1)
HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE OF SCRIPTURE
and if Christ has not been raised, your faith is worthless; you are still in your sins. 1 Corinthians 15:17
1 Corinthians 4:5
Therefore do not go on passing judgment before the time, but wait until the Lord comes who will both bring to light the things hidden in the darkness and disclose the motives of men’s hearts; and then each man’s praise will come to him from God.
For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand so that we would walk in them.