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Flashcards in Basics Deck (108)
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1

Clement of Rome

• prominent Christian leader in Rome
• I Clement, epistle (A.D. 95-6, traditional dating); letter addressing the factions at Corinth. Younger members had ousted presbyters from their positions; Clement called for the members to be restored to their positions.

2

Cyprian of Carthage

• c. A.D. 200-258, martyred
• bishop of Carthage
• converted c. 246 by Caecilian, a presbyter
• born into a wealthy and noble family, after conversion sold his estates for the poor, vowed chastity and was baptized; avid study of the Scriptures and Tertullian
• acclaimed by the people as head of whole North African clergy, aptly administered the bishopric, martyred in A.D. 258
• Hebrews not canonical (Tertullian had att’d it to Barnabas)

3

Ignatius of Antioch

• second or third bishop of Antioch
• escorted under armed guard from Antioch to Rome, martyred c. 110 under Emperor Trajan
• en route stopped at Smyrna and Troas, wrote 7 epistles including to Polycarp; desired to be martyred
• thrown to wild animals in the Coliseum, ‘coax the wild beasts that they may become a tomb for me’; ‘Allow me to be an imitator of the suffering of my God’ (Kruger, Christianity at..., ch. 2)

4

Tertullian

• born c. 150 A.D. in Carthage
• well educated, converted c. 195
• became leader of Montanist sect c. 205 in Africa due to ‘envy and laxity of the clergy in the Roman church’—Jerome
• prolific writer; coined term ‘rule of faith’ (Apostles’ Creed); opposed Marcion’s canon (wrote five volumes against him)
• believed Hebrews to be written by Barnabas
• wrote Apology to governors of the Roman provinces: ‘The oftener we are mown down by you, the more in numbers we grow; the blood of Christians is seed.’

5

Barnabas

• companion and co-worker of the Apostle Paul

6

Polycarp

• bishop of Smyrna; martyred A.D. 155
• knew Papias of Hierapolis and Apostle John
• sent copies of Ignatius’ letters to the church in Philippi after his martyrdom

7

Irenaeus

• bishop of Lyons, Gaul (c. 178)
• listened to Polycarp’s sermons as a child
• succeeded Bishop Pothinus, who was tortured in 177 during the interrogations over the riot at Lyons. He was over 90 years old

8

Gnosticism

1945 Nag Hammadi, Egypt, 13 codices found detailing Gnostic thought, among them the Gospel of Thomas
• Gnostic thought was very diverse
• physical world created by Elohim, the god of Judaism (demiurge)
• salvation comes through release from the physical world and back into the spiritual world
• special knowledge of origin and destiny of man through JC
• docetism and J was simply an emanation from the true God

9

Emperor Domitian’s reign:

c. AD 81-96, persecuted Christians

10

Who was Tacitus?

Roman historian, c. AD 116

11

Who was Suetonius?

Roman historian, c. 120

12

Justin Martyr

c. AD 103-165, Christian philosopher and apologist
• martyred under Emperor Marcus Aurelius
• wrote two Apologies to Antoninus Pius (c. 151-55) as formal petitions; the only example of a libelli among the 2nd century apologists

13

Emperor Antoninus Pius

Reigned c. AD 137-161

14

Acts of the Scillitan Martyrs

Account of 12 Christians before the Roman proconsul Saturninus Carthage, North Africa (c. AD 180)

‘Thanks be to God, today we are martyrs in heaven’

15

Lucian of Samosata

c. AD 115-200
• well known rhetorician and satirist
• wrote The Passing of Peregrinus (c. AD 165), a satire on Christianity which portrays Christians as uneducated simpletons with low social status

16

Galen

c. AD 129-199
• physician and philosopher, and friend of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus
• prolific author who disagreed with but respected Christianity; C was invalid due to lack of proof

17

Celsus

published True Doctrine (c. AD 177), an extensive critique of Christianity
• philosopher and one of C’s most influential critics in the second century

18

Quadratus

2nd century apologist who presented his work to Emperor Hadrian (c. AD 125)
• defended J’s miracles by explaining that those healed survived to ‘our own time’ (Kruger, Christianity..., ch. 2)

19

Aristides

Athenian philosopher and Christian apologist
• presented his work to Hadrian (c. AD 125)
• wrote Apology, in it he shows that many core beliefs (virgen birth, etc) were already established by the early second century

20

Epistle to Diognetus

Mid-2nd century
• focuses on defense of C in light of its “newness” and represents Christians as ordinary

21

Tatian

Born in Syria (c. AD 130), student of Justin Martyr
• wrote Diatessaron and Oration to the Greeks (c. 165)

22

What were the standard political and ethical charges leveled against Christians in Rome in the 2nd century?

• insubordination
• subversion
• atheism
• incest
• cannibalism

23

Athenagoras

Christian philosopher and apologist from Athens
• wrote Plea for the Christians (c. 177), addressed to Marcus Aurelius and Commodus

24

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch in second century
• wrote To Autolycus (c. 180), three volume work contrasting the Christian God with the Greco-Roman gods

25

Didache

Church manual from the very beginning of the 2nd century and one of the earliest C texts outside of the NT
• ancient account of the inner workings of the Church but not written by Apostles
• written during a time when the Church was transitioning from less formal to more formal ecclesiastical structure

26

Eusebius

c. AD 260-339
(Cambridge, ch. 3)

Fourth-century bishop and church historian of Caesarea, wrote Ecclesiastical History and De vita Constantini

27

Ebionites

Second century group of Chist-followers who believed salvation relied on the Jewish system of law (e.g. circumcision, etc)
• repudiated Paul as a result
• rejected the virgin birth and the divinity of J (born naturally of M & J as a normal man, but was later adopted by the Holy Spirit as Messiah due to his holy life)
• the Ebionites were rejected by the major C leaders of the second century (Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Tertullian, Origen)

28

Marcion of Sinope

Wealthy merchant and ship owner who joined the church in Rome in AD 144 and made a large financial donation
• rejected the OT dttf that it was written by an inferior and morally questionable deity. The G of the Jews was diff from the G of the C’s.
• regarded Paul as highly authoritative
• taught Docetism, J ‘appeared’ on Earth fully grown
• 11 book canon (Luke and 10 letters of Paul)
• Marcionites were known for fasting, strict dietary regulations and refusal to marry or have sex (similar to Gnostics)

29

Emperor Hadrian

Reigned AD 117-138

30

Seven Gnostic leaders

Cerinthus, Basilides, Valentinus, Ptolemy, Heracleon, Theodotus, Carpocrates