LOFT BUILDINGS Flashcards Preview

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES > LOFT BUILDINGS > Flashcards

Flashcards in LOFT BUILDINGS Deck (51):
0

The most common type of loft building

Fireproof Lofts

1

Construction features of loft buildings

*High ceilings
*Large un-compartment spaces
*Freight elevators close to the front entrance of the building
*Class 1, 2, 3 or 6 construction

2

The legislative bill know as the Loft Law

Passed in 1982 led the way to establishing these properties as legal multiple dwellings

3

The least common type of loft is the

Mill (Heavy Timber) constructed lofts

4

The newest and most common type of loft is the

*Fireproof Loft
*Many of these buildings are well maintained and have not been altered

5

The Fireproof Loft consists of

*Steel columns
*Steel girders
*Steel beams
*In conjunction with reinforced concrete

6

Cast Iron columns are not designed to withstand an

Eccentric load

7

Cast iron columns are bolted into position. Bolt holes are cast when the columns are made, leading to

Excessively wide holes and connections that have too much play

8

When cast iron columns are properly cast these structural members will withstand a great deal of

Thermal stress. The statement that all cast iron columns exposed to fire will shatter when cooled by a hose line is a myth. However, if an improperly cast column is cooled by a hose line it can contract disproportionately leading to potential failure.

9

When subjected to the heat from a fire for long periods of time, cast iron columns can

Fracture and fail

10

A 1100 degrees Fahrenheit, cast iron loses

*58% of its original strength
*The strength is cumulative and is never regained
*Iron fibers (like steel) when heated elongate or extend the column.
*A structural cast iron column, however, unable to move will crack

11

Cast iron columns and areas behind squared off cast iron facade fronts are

Hollow. Some early construction techniques utilized these hollow cast iron columns as hot air supply ducts. The void behind these cast iron fronts allows for fire spread similar to a boxed out channel rail. Check for fire extension in the wall on the floor above and below

12

The most dangerous type of fire escapes in loft buildings are the

Vertical fire escapes. They serve each floor level but lack intermediate landings or balconies.

13

Lightweight sheds built to enclose

Depressed courtyards. To provide natural light below grade, the roofs of these sheds were constructed using wire glass. These glass roofs may be tarred or planked mover for security reasons, crafting what appears to be and mistaken for a weight bearing roof. These shed roofs, once removed may provide effective ventilation points for sub level and first floor fires.

14

Segmental arch floors should not be

Breached for fear of causing a general floor collapse spanning a wide area.

15

Wrought iron is equally strong in

Compression and tension. When heated in a fire situation will elongate and lose strength. Both of these characteristics can lead to a collapse

16

A general rule of thumb for the run of original hardwood finished flooring is from

Front to rear of the building. A firefighter lost on a floor can utilize this knowledge to find a front or rear means of egress

17

Fire towers are found on

Both fireproof and non fireproof loft buildings. They are ideal for fire department use as evacuation stairs. They should however, not be utilized as attack stairs since heat and the products of combustion tend to be drawn into them hindering hose line advancement and operation.

18

Steel tension cables or rods with reinforcing plates (Stars)

These reinforcing plates, commonly in the shape of a star can be seen on exterior walls of the building. They were installed during construction by design (indicated by a uniform pattern) or put in post construction (irregular pattern) when floor framing cannot be relied upon to tie-in the opposing walls due to age and deterioration. Steel tension cables or rods can fail at 800 degrees

19

A large piece of granite stone covering the sidewalk to the curb line indicates a

Full sidewalk vault

20

Quoins provide a visual contrast so the the

Width of the building may be discerned

21

A frontage that is _____ feet or less indicates that there are no interior columns

25 feet or less

22

Synthetic walls are

Low level windows that provide excellent openings for access, egress, ventilation and hose stream and foam delivery

23

Where straight run stairs terminate on an upper floor and then a return type stair is found, this indicates

Add-on floor construction

24

Regarding the passenger and freight elevators found in OLDER AND NEWER cast iron loft type structures, they are normally found within the

Area of the front wall of the building

25

Regarding the passenger and freight elevators found in OLDER AND NEWER cast iron loft type structures, which type of elevator (passenger or freight) will have fireman service capabilities

Passenger elevators will (freight will not)

26

Regarding the passenger and freight elevators found in OLDER AND NEWER cast iron loft type structures, can you operate a hose line into the elevator shaft windows?

Yes, if the fire is in the shaft

27

Regarding the passenger and freight elevators found in OLDER AND NEWER cast iron loft type structures, elevator shaft windows look______to other windows in the front facade. When FACING THE STREET these windows are required to display the sign "Shaftway" across the outer portion of the window

Identical

28

After a fire is knocked down in a Loft building a BC is sent onto the fire floor to supervise overhauling ops and notes the building has segmental arch floors. In this situation it would be correct for the BC to make the following points

*All parts of the floor arch system are in compression
* removal of any tile, not just the keystone, may precipitate the collapse of the entire arch
*These floors should not be breached
*When exposed to fires these floors can spall violently
*A hose stream operated should not be operated onto a segmental arch floor from directly below, use the reach of the stream
*Theses floors can collapse from indiscriminate overhauling on their UNDERSIDE

29

Facts regarding the use of cast iron columns

*Cast iron columns are not designed to withstand an eccentric load
*When properly cast they will withstand a great deal of thermal stress
*There is no one reliable way to know if a column was cast properly
*Columns cast improperly and/or not meeting the acceptable thickness commensurate to the load they are required to support are inherently the weak links in the Loft construction

30

If a cast iron column is exposed to fire then cooled by a hose line will it shatter

No. That's a myth!

31

At _____ degrees a cast iron column will lose _____% of its strength. This lost strength is cumulative and never regained

1100 degrees
58%

32

When heated. Cast iron column will____. However if the cast iron column is unable to move it will______

Extend
Crack

33

Cast iron columns can

Fracture and fail if subjected to heat from a fire for long periods of time

34

Safety concerns at Loft building fires

*Pediments on loft buildings must be avoided when positioning apparatus ladders
*Avoid striking columns with LCS
*Floor collapse can be initiated by the failure of a single column
*If the structural supports of a gravity tank are questionable, consider draining the tank and diverting water off the roof into a drain pipe
*Roof and floor drains should be cleared of debris by members using hand tools

35

Cast iron is ______in compression and ______in tension

Strong
Weak

36

Wrought iron is______in compression and ______in tension

Strong
Strong

37

Concrete is _____in compression and _______ in tension

Strong
Weak

38

Steel is _______in compression and _________in tension

Strong
Strong

39

Construction features unique to NEWER cast iron loft buildings

*Wrought iron girders, beams and lintels. Wrought iron when heated will elongate and lose strength
*Double columns, an outer shell of cast iron or tile around the inner cast iron column. The space in between MAY be filled with plaster OR left unfilled
*Cellars and sub cellars with fire protected ceilings and enclosed stairs

40

Wrought iron when heated will ______ and _______

Elongate
Lose strength

41

Construction features of Mill Loft type structures

*Heavy timber floors & roof (class 6 construction)
*Scuppers at the roof and floor level at the base of walls to allow for water drainage
*Fire towers which were idea for use as evacuation stairs
*Sand Lime mortar in the brick walls - this mortar is water soluble
*Steel tension cables or rods with reinforcing plates that fail around 800 degrees Fahrenheit
*Sawtooth roofs typically of wood truss designs

42

Battalion Chief tactics at sub cellar fires in a Loft building

*The 1st arriving LCC's open & remove the deadlight & metal frame over the sidewalk to provide vertical ventilation
*Special called ladder company opened up the synthetic walls to provide vertical ventilation
*The 2nd engine assisted on the 1st line & supplied the sprinkler Siamese
*Called the 1st OV FF to determine if there was a rear entrance that provided better access to the sub cellar area

43

What is the most prevalent fire escape found on Old Cast Iron Loft buildings

Standard

44

Iron window shutters generally installed on the rear and side walls of Older Cast Iron Lofts were mandated by law on loft buildings with plain glass windows situated less than ____feet horizontally from another building or less than _____feet vertically from the roof of an adjoining building

30 feet
50 feet

45

Correct descriptions of Older Cast Iron Lofts and elevator shafts

*Passenger AND freight elevators are normally located within the area of the front wall
*If a loading dock is present the FREIGHT elevators may be found 20 feet inward from the front of the building
*When elevator shafts face the STREET any window serving the shaft is required to display a "shaft way" sign across the outer portion of the window that is clearly visible from the street
*Shaft windows may have boards across their lower portion, placed to serve as a warning of an open shaft. These windows will look IDENTICAL to the other windows in the front facade

46

Segmental arch floors exposed to fire can spall violently and possibly fall when struck by a hose line from below. Use the reach of the hose line and

Do not operate the stream directly overhead

47

Steel tension cables and rods can fail at _______degrees farenheight

800 degrees

48

Segmental Arch Floors found in NEWER Cast Iron Loft buildings as well as some Mill construction were used to span the gap between cast iron or wrought iron I beams. What are the correct descriptions about these arch floors

*All parts of the arch floor system are in compression
*Wrought iron rods run from beam to beam to counter the outward thrust off the arch, which was exerted on the beams
*Segmental arch floors should NOT BE BREACHED for fear of causing a general floor collapse spanning a wide area

49

Fire doors commonly found in pairs on either side of bearing walls in Fire proof Lofts are activated by fusible links and can be placed anywhere throughout the building. In what other types of loft buildings can fire doors be found

Cast Iron and Mill Loft construction

50

Information about cast iron columns

*When subject to heat from a fire for long periods of time cast iron columns can fracture or fail
*At 1100 degrees cast iron loses 58% of its original strength
The strength loss is cumulative and is NEVER regained
*Iron fibers (like steel) when heated elongate or extend the column. *A structural cast iron column unable to move will crack