Logic 2 Flashcards Preview

Philosophy > Logic 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Logic 2 Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...
1

Argument from definition
(Deductive or inductive)

Deductive
Argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely on definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusion.

2

Categorical syllogism
(Deductive or inductive)

Deductive
Each statement begins with one of the words "all" "no" or "some"

3

Hypothetical syllogism
(Deductive or inductive)

Deductive
Having a conditional "if...then" statement for one or both premises

4

Disjunctive syllogism
(Deductive or inductive)

Gavin a disjunctive "either...or..." Statement

5

"Necessarily" usually indicates a decisive or inductive argument?

Deductive

6

"Probably" usually indicates a deductive or an inductive argument?

Inductive argument

7

Improbable is a deductive or an inductive indicator?

Inductive indicator

8

Plausible is a deductive or an inductive indicator?

Inductive indicator

9

Implausible is a deductive or an inductive indicator?

Inductive indicator

10

Likely is a deductive or an inductive indicator

Inductive indicator

11

Unlikely is a deductive or inductive indicator

Inductive indicator

12

Certainly is a deductive or an inductive indicator

Deductive indicator

13

Absolutely is a deductive or inductive indicator

Deductive

14

Definitely is a deductive or an inductive indicator

Deductive indicator

15

Deductive or inductive?
All entertainers are extroverts. David letterman is an entertainer. Therefore, David letterman is an extrovert.

Deductive argument

16

Deductive or inductive?
The vast majority of entertainers are extroverts. David letterman is an entertainer. Therefore, David letterman is an extrovert.

Inductive argument
The premises do strictly follow. It offers it being possible.

17

-Deductive or inductive?
-What kind?
All ancient forests are sources of wonder. Some ancient forests are targets of the timber industry. Therefore, some sources of wonder are targets of the timber industry.

Categorical syllogism

18

-Deductive or inductive?
-what kind?
If estate taxes are abolished, then wealth will accumulate disproportionately. If wealth accumulates disproportionately, then democracy will be threatened. Therefore, if estate taxes are abolished, then democracy will be threatened.

Deductive argument
Hypothetical syllogism

19

-deductive or inductive?
-what kind?
If Fox News is a propaganda machine, then it misleads viewers.
Fox News is a propaganda machine.
Therefore, Fox News misleads viewers.

Deductive argument
Hypothetical syllogism

20

-deductive or inductive?
-what kind?
Either global warming will be arrested, or hurricanes will become more intense. Global warming will not be arrested. Therefore, hurricanes will become more intense.

Deductive argument
Disjunctive syllogism

21

Prediction
Deductive or inductive

Inductive argument
Argument that proceeds from our knowledge of the past to a claim about the future

22

Argument from analogy
Deductive or inductive

Inductive argument
Argument that depends on the existence of an analogy, or similarly between two things or states of affairs.

23

Generalization
Deductive or inductive

Inductive argument
Makes assumption about selected sample that applies to whole group

24

Argument from authority
Deductive or inductive

Inductive argument
Argument that concludes something to be true because a presumed expert or witness said so. But a witness or expert can lie or be mistakes so it can be probabilistic.

25

Argument based on signs

Inductive argument
Knowledge from a sign, visual
Signs can be misplaced

26

Casual inference
Deductive or inductive

Inductive
Argument that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to a claim about an effect, or, conversely from knowledge of an effect to a claim about a cause
(Natural signs that you make conclusions or assumptions from)

27

Argument based on mathematics
(Deductive or inductive)

Deductive argument
The conclusion depends on some arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement.

28

All strong arguments are also cogent. True or false?

False, not all

29

Some valid arguments are also sound. True or false

True

30

Every deductive argument with all true premises and a false conclusion must have an invalid form. True or false?

True