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Flashcards in Logic 3 Deck (30)
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1

The arguer attempts to support a conclusion by merely evoking pity from the reader

Appeal to pity or argumentum ad misericordiam

2

The conclusion of an argument depends on the fact that a word or phrase is used

Equivocation

3

Because the parts have a certain attribute it follows that the whole must have it

Composition

4

Either or statement with two unlikely alternatives

False dichotomy

5

From whole to parts. The conclusion depends on the transference of an attribute from a whole or a class onto its parts

Division

6

The authority may lack credibility

Appeal to unqualified authority or argumentum ad verecundiam

7

Incapable of being proved or not yet proved so it's dismissed

Appeal to ignorance or argumentum ad ignorantiam

8

Uses desires like love esteem and value to get the reader to accept conclusion

Appeal to the people/ argumentum ad populum

9

Reasonable likelihood that the sample is not the representative group

Hasty generalization

10

Distorts the opponents argument for the purpose of more easily attacking it, and concludes the opponents real argument has been distorted

Straw man

11

When a general rule is applied to a specific case it wasn't intended to cover

Accident

12

Whenever the arguer poses a conclusion and tells that person that some harm will come unless they accept the conclusion

Appeal to force or argumentum ad baculum

13

Involves two arguers. One advances a certain argument. The other responds by directing his or her attention to the first person instead of the argument.

Argument against the person or argumentum ad hominem

14

Arguer diverts the attention of the reader or listener by changing the subject. Sometimes in a closely related way

Red herring

15

Irrelevant. When the premises go with one conclusion then a different conclusion is drawn

Missing the point ignoratio elenchi

16

Argument depends on analogy. Analogy isn't strong enough to support conclusion.

Weak analogy

17

Conclusion of the argument leads to chain reactions and there's no reason to think it can happen.

Slippery slope

18

The link between the premises and conclusion depends on some imagines causal connection that probably doesn't exist

False cause.

19

Argumentum ad verecundiam

Appeal to unqualified authority

20

Argumentum ad ignorantiam

Appeal to ignorance

21

Jane is in favor of increased safety inspections for planes. But Jane is the owner of a safety company & would beg millions if this new regulation went into law. Therefore there is no reason to increase inspections.

Argumentum ad hominem

22

Obviously Rolex watches are the best! Look how few people can afford them!

Argumentum ad populum

23

We should always respect people's personal property. Therefore you should give that psychotic man his knife.

Accident

24

So many people are on welfare. Therefore welfare must cause property.

False cause.

25

Chickens are small, flightless birds and Americans love to eat them. Penguins are also small, flightless birds. Therefore Americans probably also love to eat penguins.

Weak analogy

26

If we defund education, then our society will crumble. But we didn't defund education. Thus our society will not not crumble after all!

Denying the antecedent

27

If I study then I pass. I passed the test. Therefore I must have studied

Affirming the consequent

28

Florida is a tropical state. Therefore many states must be tropical.

Hasty generalization

29

Alex is in favor of vegetarianism. But I don't think it is right to say that humans are no better than animals. This sort of thinking totally undermines humans. Therefore Alex is wrong in his beliefs

Straw man.

30

You can't prove that God doesn't exist. Therefore it is reasonable to believe in God

Argumentum ad ignorantiam