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Flashcards in Lower Respi Deck (105):
1

commencement of trachea

cricoid cartilage at level of C6

2

termination of trachea

carina

3

carina divides into right and left principal bronchus at what level

sternal angle (T3-4)

4

how many U shaped cartilaginous rings in trachea

15-20

5

cartilages in trachea are of what kinds

hyaline

6

the trachea is a _______ tube

firboelastic

7

the posterior free ends of the trachea is connected by

trachealis muscles

8

where can the trachea be palpated

root of neck, midline in suprasternal notch

9

length of the trachea

4.5 inch (11.25cm)

10

diameter of trachea

1 in (2.5cm)

11

located anterior to the trachea

skin
fascia
isthmus (2nd to 4th ring)
inferior thyroid vein
jugular arch
thyroidea ima artery
sternothyroid
sternohyoid muscles

12

located posterior to the trachea

right and left recurrent laryngeal nerves
esophagus

13

located lateral to trachea

lobes of thyroid
carotid sheath and contents

14

anterior to the superior mediastinum of the thorax

sternum
thymus
left brachiocephalic vein
origins of the brachipcephalic and left common carotid arteries
arch of aorta

15

posterior the superior mediastinum of the thorax

esophagus
left recurrent laryngeal nerve

16

to right side of superior mediastinum

azygos vein
right vagus nerve
pleura

17

to the left side of the superior mediastinum

arch of the aorta
left common carotid
left subclav art
pleura

18

nerve supply of the trachea

sensory (vagus, reccurent)
sympathetic nerves

19

blood supply of trachea

inferior thyroid art (upper 2/3)
bronchial artery (lower 1/3)

20

lymph drainage of trachea

pretracheal and paratracheal lymph nodes
deep cervical nodes

21

2 parts of th pleura

parietal
visceral

22

2 layers of the pleura become continuous with one via

cuff of pleura

23

surrounds strucutres entering and leaving the lung at the hilum

cuff of pleura

24

separates visceral and parietal pleura, for minimum friction

pleural cavity

25

parietal pleura according to region

cervical
costal
diaphragmatic (lower 8 10 12)

mediastinal

26

suprapleural membrane aka

Sibson's fascia

27

cervical pleura reaches until

1-1.5 inches above medial third of clavicle

28

lines the under surface of the suprapleural membrane

cervical pleura

29

lines inner surface of the ribs, costal cartialges, ICS, back fos ternum and sides of vertebral body

costal pleura

30

cover the thoracic surface of the doaphragm

diaphragmatic pleura

31

itsura ng costal at diaohragmatic pleura during quiet respi

side by side

32

itsura ng costal at diaphragmatic pleura during deep inspi

separate

33

covers and forms the lateral boudnary of mediastinum

mediastinal pleura

34

the mediastinal plerua is reflected as a cuff aroudn the vessels and bronchi where

lung hilum

35

pleura sensitive to temp, pain, touch, pressure

parietal

36

pleura sensitive to stretch

visceral

37

nerve supply of the visceral pleura

autonomic supplt from pulmonary plexus

38

nerve supply to costal pleura

intercostal nerves

39

nerve supply to mediastinal pleura

phrenic

40

nerve supply to diaphragmatic pleura

phrenic enrve - domes
lower 6 intercostal -periphery

41

how manys ites not fully occupied uring quiet inspiration

4

42

4 sites not fully occupied during quiet inspiration

right and left costodiaphragmatic recess
right and left costomediastinal recess

43

costal and diaphragmatic come together during ____

expiration

44

slit-like spaces between costal and mediastinal parietal pleura situated along anterior margins of pleura

right and left costomediastinal recess

45

during insi and expi, ____________ slides ina dn out of the costomediastinal recess

apex of lungs

46

bifurcation of the trachea into right and left bronchi is where

behind arch of aorta

47

respiratory bronchioles divide into _____ alveolar ducts that enter te sacs

2-11

48

wider bonchus

right

49

shorter bronchus

right

50

narrower bronchus

left

51

longer bronchus

left

52

stems of right bronchus

eparietal
hyparietal

53

stems of left bronchus

hyparietal only

54

branch of right bornchus before entering hilum

superior lobar bronchus

55

branch of right bronchuis on entering hilum

middle and inferior lobar bronchus

56

what arches of the right bronchus

azygos vein

57

branches of left bronchus upon entering hilum

superior and inferior lobar

58

path of left bronchus

passes to the elft below arch of aorta in front of esophagus

59

lung are separated from each other by

heart and great vessels

60

lungs are attached to mediastinum only by its

roots

61

projects upwards 1inch above clavicle

blunt apex

62

lung surface that sits on diaphragm

concave base

63

lung surface due to concave cesht wall

concave costal surface

64

lung surface molded into the epricardium and medistinal structures

concave mediastinal surface

65

depression in which bronchi, vessels, nerves enter and leave the lungs

hilum

66

Mapped out by drawing a convex upward from sternoclavicular joint to point 1 inch (2.5cm) above junction of medial and intermediate thirds of the clavicle

apex of lungs

67

anterior border of right lung

behind sternoclav joint > downward almost reaching midline behind sternal angle > downward to xiphisternal joint

68

anterior border of left lung

similar until 4th costal > deviates laterally to form cardiac notch

69

produced by heart displacing the left lung

cardiac notchq

70

lower border of the lungs

6th rib midclav line
8th rib midaxill
10th rib adjacent to vertebra column

71

posterior border of the lungs

spine of C7 to T10
1.5 inches from midline

72

which lung is larger, 3 lobes, and has oblique and horizontal fissures,

right

73

which lung is smaller, 2 lobes and no horiz fissures

left

74

fissure found in both lungs

oblique

75

fissure found in right lung only

horizontal

76

this follows the course of the 6th rib

oblique fissure

77

Can be indicated by drawing a line from root of spine of the scapula obliquely downward, laterally, and anteriorl

oblique fissure

78

Divides superior lobe producing middle lobe

horizontal fissure

79

saang level ang horizontal fissure

4th costal cartilage

80

where does horizontam meet oblique fissure

midaxillary line

81

bounded by horizontal and oblique fissures

middle lobe

82

bronchial arteries are branches of

descendign aorta

83

supplies connective tissue of lungs, visceral pleura, bronchi

bonrchial artery

84

bronnchial arteries drain into

azygous and hemiazygous

85

carries deoxygenated blood to alveoli

pulmonary artery

86

carries oxygenated blood and empties into ______

pulmonary veins
left atrium

87

nerves found at root of lung

ulmonary plexus

88

fibers of pulmonary plexus

efferent and afferent autonomic fibers

89

pulmonary plexus is from where

bracnhes of sympathetic trunk

90

where doe the pulmonary plexus gets its parasympa fibers

vagus enrve

91

sympathetic efferent fibers of the lungs produces

bronchodilatio n
vasocon

92

parasympathetic efferent fibers of lungs produces

bronchoconstr
vasocil
increased galdnular secretion

93

the superficial or subpleural plexus of lymph nodes drains what

srains over sufrace of lungs to hilum

94

lymph vessel of superficial plexus enters what

bronchopulmonary nodes

95

course of deep plexus of lymphs

along bronchi toward hilum

96

all lymph nodes drains into ________ then _______ then ______

tracheobronchial nodes >
branchomediastinal lymph trunks >
subclav vein

97

anatomic, functional, surgical units of the lungs

bronchopulmonary segments

98

components of each segment

Pulmonary artery
Lymphatic vessels Autonomic nerve supply
Respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs

99

pulmonary veins run where

connective tissue between adjacent segments(outside the segment)

100

seen running in connective tissues between adjacent segments

pulmonary veins

101

upon entering the bronchopulmonary segment what happens

seg bronchus divides

bronchi becomes smaller (U shape replaced by irreg plates)

rise to bronchioles <1 mm wide

rise to terminal bronchioles 0.5 mm wide

alveolar ducts

alveolar sacs

102

main characteristics of bronchopulmonary segments

subdivision of lung lobe
pyramid shape
apex towards lung root

103

formed of structures entering or leaving the lung

root of the lung

104

components ng roots of lungs

bronchi
pulmo artery and vein
lymph vesssels
bronchial vessels

105

what surrounds the root of the lung

tubular sheath of pleura