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Flashcards in Lumbar Deck (166)
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1

66% of the lumbar lordosis from ____________.

L4-S1

2

Decreased lumbar lordosis associated with ________ disc degeneration.

L5S1

3

Decreased ___________ effort when lordosis is maintained.

extensor

4

Gold standard = radiographic measurement; range from ______________.

47* - 64*

5

External measures =

-bendable rulers
- strain gauges embedded in tape
- inclinometers
- accelerometers

6

Do external measures have a better or poorer validity?

All external measures have poor concurrent validity against radiograph.

7

For lumbar lordosis: line parallel to superior endplate of ____.

L1

8

For lumbar lordosis: line parallel to inferior endplate of ____.

L5

9

For lumbar lordosis: _________________ drawn to these lines.

Perpendiculars

10

For lumbar lordosis: angle between the _____________ of these perpendiculars

intersection

11

The functional spinal unit is made up of what 4 components?

1. two adjacent vertebral bodies
2. intervertebral disc (IVD)
3. associated soft tissue
4. motion segment

12

Lumbar vertebral structure, anterior elements:

1. two vertebral bodies
2. intervertebral disc (IVD)
3. Longitudinal ligaments

13

Lumbar vertebral structure, posterior elements:

1. vertebral arches
2. spinous and transverse processes
3. facet joints
4. posterior ligaments

14

The anterior elements of the lumbar spine function to:

1. bear compressive loads
2. larger caudally (loading increases)

15

The posterior elements of the lumbar spine function to:

1. guide movement
2. motion determined by facet joint orientation

16

The facet joints function to:

restrict motion
and as muscle attachments

17

The TP function to:

as muscle and ligament attachments
Increase moment arm

18

The SP function as:

muscle and ligament attachments
increase moment arms

19

The superior facet joint articulates with the

inferior facet of the adjacent vertebrae

20

The highly innervated joint capsule functions as:

mechanoreceptors for proprioception
nociceptors --> pain

21

The surface orientation of the lumbar facet is:

90* transverse plane
45* FRONTAL plane

22

The lumbar facets allow for:

1. flex/ ext
2. lateral flex
3. minimal rotation

23

The lumbosacral joint is in __________ orientation for __________.

oblique orientation for rotation

24

Lumbar facet joints load share with IVD, which is _______ dependent.

posture

25

Hyperextension causes ________ total load on facets

30%

26

Flexion coupled with rotation ____________________________.

increases loading of facets

27

what is tight in extension?

anterior longitudinal ligament

28

What serves as a vertebral body attachment (less to disc)

anterior longitudinal ligament

29

What serves as a IVD attachment (less to body)

the posterior longitudinal ligament

30

What is tight in flexion?

posterior longitudinal ligament