Flashcards in Thoracic Deck (89)
How many vertebrae does the thoracic spine have?
How many apophyseal (facet) joints does the thoracic spine have?
24 (12 on each side)
Which 2 structures have costal articulating surfaces?
1) vertebral body
2) transverse process
What are some characteristics for T1 vertebrae?
- characterisitc of cervical spine
-full articular facet for the head of the 1st rib and demi-facet for upper half of 2nd rib
-body transvers diameter is 2x size of AP diameter
-spinous process is long and prominent
Typical thoracic vertebrae have:
-V. body is equal in the transverse and AP diameters
- V.bodies are wedged shaped. Posterior height is greater than anterior height
- Wedge shape = kyphotic posture
In thoracic structures: width increases_______, spinous processes angle ________, transverse processes angle _______ and the disc height ratio to the V. body is _________ in the spine.
Apophyseal joints (plane synovial joints) in the thoracic spine, lie at ~ ___ off Frontal and 60* from the __________ plane.
Superior facets face _________ and slightly ____________.
Inferior facets face __________ and slightly ____________.
Where does the direction of the facets change?
@ T10-11 to the sagital plane (from frontal)
Thoracic flexion includes: superior anterior slide of ______________ of the superior vertebrae on the ____________ of the inferior vertebrae.
Thoracic flexion is limited by tension in connective tissues __________ aspect of thoracic region.
Thoracic extension includes: posterior inferior slide of ________________ of the superior vertebrae on the _____________ inferior vertebrae
Thoracic extension is limited by tension _________ connective tissues and _____________ body structures.
Frontal plane orientation in rotation: inferior articular facet of superior vertebrae ___________ against superior facet below
Frontal plane orientation in lateral flexion: inferior facet on the _________ side slides inferiorly. Inferior facet on the _____________ side slides superiorly
Spinal coupled motion in the thoracic spine occurs in one axis while another motion occurs in another axis. It is highly _________ and ______________.
Variable and controversial
What is scoliosis?
deformity of the vertebral spine
Scoliosis is characterized by:
The deformities of scoliosis can be found in:
all three planes; frontal, horizontal, and sagittal
Where is scoliosis most commonly found?
What demographic is scoliosis mostly commonly found in?
What are the two types of scoliosis?
Structural scoliosis is:
a fixed deformity in which 80% of the cases are idiopathic. There is a lateral curvature and vertebral rotation component involved.
What are the known causes for the other 20% of structural scoliosis cases?
-neuromuscular diseases - cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy
-congenital spinal defects.
Non-structural scoliosis is:
normal spine with a lateral curvature, there is no spinal rotation.
Possible causes of non-structural scoliosis are:
postural, leg length discrepancy, and pain
Curves of scoliosis:
minor curves =
= less than 20˚
- Better chance of not progressing
Curves of scoliosis:
intermediate curves =
25*-45*; difficult to predict progression and requires close follow-up