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Flashcards in Thoracic Deck (89)
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1

How many vertebrae does the thoracic spine have?

12

2

How many apophyseal (facet) joints does the thoracic spine have?

24 (12 on each side)

3

Which 2 structures have costal articulating surfaces?

1) vertebral body
2) transverse process

4

What are some characteristics for T1 vertebrae?

- characterisitc of cervical spine
-full articular facet for the head of the 1st rib and demi-facet for upper half of 2nd rib
-body transvers diameter is 2x size of AP diameter
-spinous process is long and prominent

5

Typical thoracic vertebrae have:

-V. body is equal in the transverse and AP diameters
- V.bodies are wedged shaped. Posterior height is greater than anterior height
- Wedge shape = kyphotic posture

6

In thoracic structures: width increases_______, spinous processes angle ________, transverse processes angle _______ and the disc height ratio to the V. body is _________ in the spine.

caudally
inferiorly
posteriorlaterally
smallest

7

Apophyseal joints (plane synovial joints) in the thoracic spine, lie at ~ ___ off Frontal and 60* from the __________ plane.

~20*
horizontal

8

Superior facets face _________ and slightly ____________.

posteriorly
superiolaterallly

9

Inferior facets face __________ and slightly ____________.

anteriorly
inferiormedially

10

Where does the direction of the facets change?

@ T10-11 to the sagital plane (from frontal)

11

Thoracic flexion includes: superior anterior slide of ______________ of the superior vertebrae on the ____________ of the inferior vertebrae.

inferior facet
superior facet

12

Thoracic flexion is limited by tension in connective tissues __________ aspect of thoracic region.

posterior

13

Thoracic extension includes: posterior inferior slide of ________________ of the superior vertebrae on the _____________ inferior vertebrae

inferior facet
superior facet

14

Thoracic extension is limited by tension _________ connective tissues and _____________ body structures.

anterior
posterior

15

Frontal plane orientation in rotation: inferior articular facet of superior vertebrae ___________ against superior facet below

slides

16

Frontal plane orientation in lateral flexion: inferior facet on the _________ side slides inferiorly. Inferior facet on the _____________ side slides superiorly

ipsilateral
contralateral

17

Spinal coupled motion in the thoracic spine occurs in one axis while another motion occurs in another axis. It is highly _________ and ______________.

Variable and controversial

18

What is scoliosis?

deformity of the vertebral spine

19

Scoliosis is characterized by:

abnormal curvatures

20

The deformities of scoliosis can be found in:

all three planes; frontal, horizontal, and sagittal

21

Where is scoliosis most commonly found?

thoracic spine

22

What demographic is scoliosis mostly commonly found in?

adolescent females

23

What are the two types of scoliosis?

1) structural
2) Non-structural

24

Structural scoliosis is:

a fixed deformity in which 80% of the cases are idiopathic. There is a lateral curvature and vertebral rotation component involved.

25

What are the known causes for the other 20% of structural scoliosis cases?

-neuromuscular diseases - cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy
-congenital spinal defects.

26

Non-structural scoliosis is:

normal spine with a lateral curvature, there is no spinal rotation.

27

Possible causes of non-structural scoliosis are:

postural, leg length discrepancy, and pain

28

Curves of scoliosis:
minor curves =

= less than 20˚
- Better chance of not progressing

29

Curves of scoliosis:
intermediate curves =

25*-45*; difficult to predict progression and requires close follow-up

30

Curves of scoliosis:
major curves =

>50*; high risk for progressing