Flashcards in Lung Microanatomy Deck (32):
What are mesothelial cells?
Mesothelial cells are flat cells that produce a small amount of lubricating fluid. These make up the visceral and parietal pleura.
Where does the pulmonary artery and its branches go in the lungs?
It runs along the conduction airways.
The pulmonary artery carries ____ blood.
Where does the bronchial artery branch from?
What does the bronchial artery do?
It carries oxygenated blood from the aorta and follows the conduction airways. It feeds oxygen/nutrients to the bronchial tissue.
Mucosae are constantly exposed to ______.
What are cell types of the bronchi epithelial cells? (4)
1. Goblet (secrete mucus onto bronchial surface)
2. Ciliated (constantly move the mucus up the airway)
3. Basal cell (stem cells that sit along the basal lamina and divide and differentiate into other cells in the epithelium)
4. Neuro endocrine cells. These are involved in control of airway diameter (brush cells synapse with nerve cells nearby, endocrine cells secrete hormones of different types).
What is primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome)?
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also immotile ciliary syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes defects in the action of cilia lining the respiratory tract (lower and upper, sinuses, Eustachian tube, middle ear) and fallopian tube, as well as in the flagella of sperm cells.
The main consequence of impaired ciliary function is reduced or absent mucus clearance from the lungs, and susceptibility to chronic recurrent respiratory infections, including sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, and otitis media. Progressive damage to the respiratory system is common, including progressive bronchiectasis beginning in early childhood, and sinus disease (sometimes becoming severe in adults).
What does Cystic Fibrosis do to the mucus from the goblet cells?
It makes the mucus more viscous. The consequence of this is that the ciliated cells have a difficult time moving the mucus up the airway.
In the bronchus, what is areolar connective tissue? (lamina propria)
A loose connective tissue underneath the basal lamina that contains capillaries, nerves, and a large number of leukocytes that wander around in the loose connective tissue. Contains a lot of mucosal associated lymphoid tissues.
In the bronchus, what is found deep to the areolar connective tissue?
What is defined as mucosae and what is defined as sub-mucosae when looking at lung anatomy?
Anything superficial to the Muscularis Mucosae is mucosae and anything deep to it is submucosae.
What happens when Muscularis mucosae contracts?
It gently agitates the epithelium to get things unstuck. Also, contractions help move secretions in the submucosal glands up to the surface.
What are submucosal glands?
These reside in the submucosae and secrete things onto the surface. These are found in the bronchi but not in the trachea.
In the bronchus, what is found deep to the muscularis mucosae?
Dense connective tissue of the submucosae. It's more dense than the areolar CT but it's still loose enough for leukocytes to move around.
In the bronchus, what is found deep to the dense tissue of the submucosae? (In bronchi and trachea)
Plates of hyaline cartilage (bronchi) or C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage (trachea). Chondrocytes reside in lacunae and constantly lay down composition of cartilage.
In the bronchus, what is found deep to the hyaline cartilage?
Adventitia. Large blood vessels, nerves, etc.
What do the bronchial arteries anastomose with?
Which vessels run along the branchings of the airway?
Pulmonary arteries and bronchial arteries
Which vessels run beside the branchings of the airway?
What is the trachealis muscle?
The trachealis muscle is a smooth muscle that bridges the gap between the free ends of C-shaped cartilages at the posterior border of the trachea, adjacent to the esophagus.
The primary function of the trachealis muscle is to constrict the trachea, allowing air to be expelled with more force, e.g., during coughing.
What is the layer under the epithelium?
Lamina propria (loose areolar CT). This is important for immune responses. Many leukocytes wandering around
In histology, how can you tell what is cartilage vs smooth muscle?
The cartilage is dotted. The dots are the chondrocytes in lacunae.
Are lamina propria and basal lamina the same thing?
In the bronchus, the capillaries in the lamina propria are from which vessel?
What are club/clara cells?
These are cells that line the epithelium of the bronchioles. These have surface-active substances inside that are secreted onto the surface to maintain patency of the bronchioles.
How do bronchi stay patent? How about bronchioles?
Bronchi are able to stay patent due to the plates of cartilage that are in their walls. Bronchioles stay patent because their club/clara cells have surface-active substances that are secreted onto the surface to maintain their patency.
Are surface-active substances the same thing as surfactant?
No, surface-active substances are from club/clara cells while surfactant is from the Type 2 pneumocytes.
What are the cell types in the epithelial cells for bronchioles? (2)
1. Club/Clara cells
2. Ciliated cells
In bronchioles, what is under the basal lamina?
A thin layer of lamina propria
In bronchioles, what is under the lamina propria?