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Flashcards in Lungs Deck (72)
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1

At what vertebral level is the carina?

T4 and T5 (2nd rib)

2

Where would a chest drain be placed?

5th intercostal space, above rib, MAL

3

What is the transit time of a RBC in the capillaries of the lungs?

0.75s

4

A reduced FEV1/FCV ratio with a normal FVC signifies what?

Obstructive disease of the lungs

5

What is a normal FEV1/FVC ratio?

Between 75% and 80%

6

A normal FEV1/FVC ratio with a dramatically reduced FVS signifies what?

Restrictive disease of lungs

7

What is bronchiectasis?

Abnormally widened lumen of the airways which accumulate excess mucous -> these make the lungs vulnerable to infections

8

Which cells of the lungs produce surfactant?

Type II pneumocytes

9

What is Fick's law of diffusion?

The amount of gas that moves across a membrane is proportional to the area and inversly proportional to the thickness

10

Which portion of the lungs are better ventilated?

Bases

11

What is the mean pressure in the pulmonary artery?

15mmHg

12

What is the mean pressure in the aorta?

100mmHg

13

Name 2 mechanisms which cause reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance (in response to slight rise in pressure)

Recruitment and distension

14

When is the pulmonary vascular resistance at its lowest?

On deep inspiration - expansion of the vessels by the lung parenchyma

15

Which part of the lungs have the lowest vascular resistance?

Base

16

What is the Windkessel effect?

Elastic expansion of the large elastic arteries in systole - maintains constant pressure for perfusion of the organs during diastole

17

What is cor pulmonale?

Enlargement and failure of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased vascular resistance or high blood pressure in the lungs

18

Name 2 SABAs

Salbutamol Terbutaline

19

Name a drug which is a ß2 agonist and acts on the bronchioles. Name a long term SE of this drug

Salbutamol.

Causes tremor due to its affect on the muscles, hypokalaemia when it acts on the cell membrane

20

What class of drug is ipratripium? Explain its MOA and SEs

Muscarinic receptor antagonist --> competes with ACh at the muscarinic receptors to prevent bronchoconstriction SE: dry mouth, blurred vision, GIT disturbances

21

Which receptors does tiotropium act on specifically?

M3 receptors

22

Which bond in the mucous do mucolytics break?

Disulphide bonds - makes the mucous viscous

23

What is α1-antitrypsin?

Glycoprotein produced by the liver. It's a serine protease inhibitor - balances the action of e.g. neutrophil elastase which is present in inflammation

24

Where is the respiratory centre found?

In the medulla and pons

25

Name some signs of a 'blue bloater'

  • Bounding pulse 
  • CO2 flap
  • Cyanosis
  • Increased JVP
  • Ankle swelling
  • Tricuspid regurge

26

Which lobes are damaged in α1-antitrypsin deficiency?

Lower lobes

27

What is Hamman's sign?

Mediastinal crunch precordially associated with cardiac systole - cardiac contraction forcing air through the pleural folds

28

What is Hippocratic succussion?

Sound of splashing in the chest which is sometimes audible without a stethoscope - signifies a very large pleural effusion

29

What would cause a young, tall, healthy male to have a pneumothorax?

Congenital pleural bleb

30

Where would a thoracocentesis be sited?

2nd ICS mid clavicular line on the affected side. Converts a tensiion PnTx int o a simple PnTx with a 14g venflon.