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Flashcards in 119 Shoulder trauma Deck (55)
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1

What is this?

Hill-Sach's lesion - when the posterior part of the humeral head hits the glenoid head during dislocation causing a cortical depression #

2

What is an apprehension test in Msk?

Placing the humeral head in a position of imminent subluxation or dislocation which makes the pt recognise the familiar pattern of instability and react with anticipated fear.

3

What is classed as a recurrent dislocation?

>3 dislocations

4

Which nerve supplies the biceps brachii, coracobrachialis and brachialis?

Musculocutaneous

5

What area is of skin is supplied by the axillary nerve?

Regimental badge area

6

What is the clinical presentation of damage to the ulnar nerve?

Ulnar claw

7

What is the risk of dislocation of the SC joint in a posterior direction?

Damage to the big vessels posterior to the joint

8

What runs in the bicipital groove?

Long head of biceps tendon

9

Which ligament is the strongest?

  • AC
  • coracoclavicular

 

Coracoclavicular

10

What is the direction of the humeral head during an anterior dislocation?

Antero-inferior

11

What is a Bankart lesion?

Labral tear from the glenoid

12

Which muscle is weakened following damage to the axillary nerve?

Which muscle compensates in this situation?

  • deltoid
  • trapezius compensates

 

13

What is a prefixed brachial plexus?

Contribution of anterior ramus of C4 

14

What does a lesion to the upper parts of the brachial plexus cause?

Erb's palsy

15

What does a lesion to the lower parts of the brachial plexus cause?

Klemperer palsy - results in ulnar claw

16

What can deposits of pyrophosphate from tendons cause if they're shed into the subachromial bursa?

Bursitis with severe pain and shoulder restriction

17

  • What is adhesive capsulitis?
  • When can it develop?

  • Frozen shoulder 
  • Following
    • rotator cuff injuries
    • hemiplagia
    • chest/breast surgery
    • MI

18

What are the differences between young and mature cartilage?

  • young:
    • abundent in cells
    • low ECM
    • no tide mark
    • no zonal morphology

 

19

What does the the tidemark in articular cartilage restrict?

Chondrocytes access to nutrients from the vasculature of the subchondral bone

20

Where does cartilage get its nutrients from?

Synovial fluids from synovial capsule vessels

21

What are the changes which happen in articular cartilage with ageing?

(5 listes)

  1. cell metabolism slows and number decreases
  2. collagen matrix proteins cross-link
  3. reduction in type IX collagen
  4. biochemical changes in aggrecan
  5. degradation products decrease

 

22

What is formed by the modification of hydroxyl using residues in the collagen chains?

Pyridinoline cross-links in mature cartilage

23

What is the role of transglutaminases in mature cartilage?

Enzymatically cross-link martix proteins (between lysine and glutamine)

24

What are the changes to chondroitin sulphate in ageing cartilage?

They become shorter

25

What changes happen to the keratan sulphate as cartilage ages?

Increases in size

26

Name 2 types of matrix proteinases

  • ADAMTS
  • metalloproteinases

 

27

Which 2 minerals are required for MMPs and ADAMTS?

Zinc and/or calcium

28

What are the 4 types of MMPs in cartilage metabolism?

  1. collagenases
  2. gelatinases
  3. stromelysins
  4. membrane bound MMPs

 

 

29

What are the 2 principal matrix proteinases for aggrecan metabolism?

  • ADAMTS4
  • ADAMTS5

30

Why does articular cartilage lack a perchondrium?

Perichondrium contains bvs and nerves - cartilage needs to remain avascular and aneural to be able to function in resisting compressive loads - would occlude vbs.