122 Biliary and pancreatic function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 122 Biliary and pancreatic function Deck (25):
1

Which cells of the pancreas produce bicarbonate?

Duct cells

2

Which cells of the pancreas make trypsin?

Acinar cells

3

Which hormones to the islet cells of the pancreas secrete? (4 listed)

  1. insulin
  2. glucagon
  3. pancreatic polypeptide
  4. somatostatin

 

4

Which parasympathetic nerves are found in the sensory duodenum?

Vagal sensory nerves

5

Name the 2 main bile acids

  • Cholic acid
  • chenocholic acid

 

6

What is the daily dietary intake of lipids

100g/day

7

Name the 2 essential acids required by the body

  • linoleic acid
  • linolenic acid

 

8

What reaction does cholesterol esterase catalyse?

Cholesterol ester --> FA's and cholesterol

9

Which enzyme catalyse the formation of lysolecithin and FA from lecithin?

Phospholipase

10

Which enzyme optimises lipase activity?

Colipase

11

Which aa's do bile acids conjugate with to form bile salts?

  • glycine 

OR

  • taurine

 

12

What does 7α-hydroxylase convert cholesterol to?

Cholic acid

13

Which protein carries bile acids in the portal venous blood?

albumin

14

How much bile salts are secreted from the liver to the duodenum daily?

15-30g

15

How much bile salts are synthesised by the liver daily?

0.5g --> this is how much is lost in faeces daily

16

Where are RBCs degraded?

Reticuloendothelial system in the spleen and liver macrophages

17

What is the role of heme oxygenase?

Converts heme to bilirubin

 

18

Where does lipid soluble unbound bilirubin go to in the body?

Brain

19

What is the role of bilirubin glucuronyl transferase?

  • adds 2 molecules of glucuronic acid to bilirubin making it more soluble
  • needs to be conjugated to allow access into hepatocytes

20

What is stercobilin?

Gives brown discolouration to poo and is oxidised from urobilinogens by intestinal bacteria

21

What is urobilinogen produced from?

Bilirubin glucuronide

22

How can the exocrine function of the pancreas be tested?

  • serum amylase
    • >3 = acute pancreatitis
  • Faecal elastase
  • Faecal fat
    • directly measures pancreatic enzyme activity

 

23

Which type of Ca commonly affects the pancreas?

Adenocarcinoma

24

What does a mutation in cationic trypsinogen gene lead to?

Hereditary pancreatitis - predisposes to pancreatic Ca - adenocarcinoma from ductal cells

 

25

Which vitamins are deficient in  pancreatic insufficiency?

  • A
  • D
  • E
  • K