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Flashcards in Lxa. Test Questions, Fortified Wines Deck (111):
1

What does flor need in order to thrive?
a) over 15.5% alcohol and warm temperatures
b) 15% alcohol, cool to moderate temperatures and high humidity
c) 15% alcohol, hot temperatures and residual sugar

b) 15% alcohol, cool to moderate temperatures and high humidity

2

How long must all Sherry be aged by law?
a) 1 year
b) 18 months
c) 3 years

c) 3 years

3

What alcohol % is an Oloroso Sherry fortified to?
a) 15%
b) 17%
c) 19%

b) 17%

4

What method is used for sweetening a Pale Cream Sherry?
a) the addition of sun-dried PX grapes
b) fermentation is stopped with alcohol leaving residual sugar in the wine
c) the addition of Rectified Concentrated Grape Must (RCGM)

c) the addition of Rectified Concentrated Grape Must (RCGM)

5

What style is an Oloroso Sherry?
a) deep brown with oxidative notes of toffee, leather and nuts
b) deep brown and intensely sweet with high residual sugar
c) amber with yeast derived aromas combined an oxidative character

a) deep brown with oxidative notes of toffee, leather and nuts

6

What is the maximum amount of wine a producer is allowed to draw from the solera over the course of the year?
a) one third
b) half
c) two thirds

a) one third

7

What is a criadera?
a) 600 litre oak barrel
b) a level of barrels in the Solera system
c) hot and drying wind that can raise the temperature up to 40°C

b) a level of barrels in the Solera system

8

What is the annual average millimetres of rainfall in Pinhão (Cima Corgo)?
a) 1200
b) 900
c) 700

c) 700

9

What does Tinta Cão contribute to the blend in Port?
a) gives a soft fruitiness
b) adds tannin
c) gives robust wines with perfumed aromas

b) adds tannin

10

Which of the following grapes is not used in Port?
a) Tinta Barroca
b) Tinta Negra
c) Tinta Roriz

b) Tinta Negra

11

What is the average ageing time of a vintage Port before it is bottled?
a) 18 months – 3 years
b) between 4 – 6 years
c) minimum 3 years ageing

a) 18 months – 3 years

12

What is an autovinifier?
a) a mechanical process using CO2 that is similar to pumping over
b) stainless steel vats where the cap is pressed down with piston-plungers
c) robotic feet that mimic that actions of foot treading

a) a mechanical process using CO2 that is similar to pumping over

13

In Port production, the fermenting wine reaches what level of alcohol in order for fortification to happen?
a) 4 – 6%
b) 6 – 9%
c) 9 – 12%

b) 6 – 9%

14

What is a beneficio?
a) system to control Port production through grading classifications
b) system of planting vines vertically up the slopes
c) a style of Port from a single quinta

a) system to control Port production through grading classifications

15

What is another name for the Malvasia grape in Madeira?
a) Monastrell
b) Marsanne
c) Malmsey

c) Malmsey

16

What is an Estufa?
a) a method of fortification
b) stainless steel containers for heating wine
c) large oak barrels for ageing wine

b) Stainless steel containers for heating wine

17

Which grape is used in Madeira?
a) Tinta Barroca
b) Tinta Cão
c) Tinta Negra

c) Tinta Negra

18

What is the minimum ageing requirement for a wine aged in the Canteiros system?
a) 1 year
b) 3 years
c) 5 years

b) 3 years

19

Which of the following ACs allows the use of the inferior Muscat of Alexandria grape?
a) Muscat de Beaumes de Venise
b) Muscat de Saint Jean de Minervois
c) Muscat de Rivesaltes

c) Muscat de Rivesaltes

20

What is the principal grape used in Banyuls?
a) Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
b) Grenache
c) Touriga Nacional

b) Grenache

21

Where in Australia is the Rutherglen region located?
a) Western Australia
b) New South Wales
c) Victoria

c) Victoria

22

Port Grapes?
Touriga
2

Nacional,
Franca

23

Port Grapes?
Tinta
3

Barr oca, (Fruity)
Cao, (Tannin)
Roriz (Finesse)

24

Name the Three zones of the Douro Valley?

Ba ixo Corgo,
Cima Corgo,
Douro Superior

25

Jeraz soil types?
(3)

Al bar iza (Main soil, Chalk)
Arenas (Sandy),
Barros (Clay)

26

What are Blended Sherries know as?

Vinos Generosos de Licor

27

What is Pale Cream Sherry?

Fino blended with RCGM.
(Rectified Concentrated Grape Must)

28

What is Medium Sherry?

Amontillado blended with naturally sweet Sherries.

29

What is Cream Sherry?

Oloroso and Sweet Sherries

30

What is the name of the new wine that is a resting period?

Sob re tabla

31

What is the ABV of Fino after Fermentation?

11 - 12%

32

What is Fino fortified to?

15.5%

33

What are the small producers called who can mature but not sell Sherry called?

Alma cen istas

34

What is name of the cool / humid wind?

Poniente

35

What is the name of the hot / drying wind?

Levante

36

What 3 towns make up the Andalucain triangle?

Jerez, de la Frontera.
Sanlucar de Barrameda.
Puerto de Santa Maria.

37

What does VORS stand for?
Age?

Very Old Rare Sherry.
Age = 30 years at least

38

What does VOR stand for?
Age?

Very Old Sherry.
Age = 20 years at least

39

By Law all Sherry must be aged a minimum of?

3 years

40

What does FLOR feed off of?

Alcohol and Oxygen.

41

A byproduct of FLOR that provides flavour is?

Ace tal dehyde
Acetaldehyde

42

What are the name of the levels in a Solera System?

Cri ad era,
Criadera
Solera (final stage)

43

Timing of Fortification?
Port

During fermentation

44

Timing of Fortification?
Madeira

During fermentation

45

Timing of Fortification?
Vin Doux Naturels (VDN)

During fermentation

46

Timing of Fortification?
Rutherglen Liqueur Muscat

During fermentation

47

What is a Barcos Rabelos?

Small boat used to ship port down the Duoro river.

48

What is the size of a "Pipe"

550L

49

What does fortification do to a wine?

Arrests fermentation.
Increases stability
Increases longevity.
Traditionally wines were fortified to withstand long journeys by ship.

50

What are the Noble grapes of Madeira?

Sercial
Verdelho
Bual (Boal)
Malmsey (Malvasia)

51

What is not a Noble grape of Madeira but used extensively in production of Port?

Tinta Negra (red grape)

52

What do the vineyards of the Douro look like?

They are terraced vineyards

53

What is a Socalcos?
5

Old, Narrow Flat Terraced vineyard.
No more than 3 rows per terrace.
Not Mechanised
Expensive
40% still active

54

What is taken into consideration in the classification of a port vineyard?
4

Aspect.
Grape Variety.
Soil Type.
Yield.

55

What is a Patamares?
5

1970's
Wider slightly sloping Terraces.
Earth Walls
Developed with Road access.
Erosion is a problem

56

What is a Vinha ao Alto?
5

1980's
Un-terraced Vineyard.
Rows planted up and down.
Developed with Road access.
Erosion is a problem

57

Which 4 categories of Sherry are allowed to show an age indication?

Amontillado,
Oloroso,
Palo Cortado,
PX

58

Sherries that can show a vintage date on their label are know as?

Anada.

59

How are Anada Sherries aged?

Statically.

60

Is an Anada Sherry aged in a Solera?

No.

61

What style of wine does Baixo Cargo produce?

The Lightest Wines

62

What is Cima Corgo know for?

Where most top vineyards are located.

63

What are the names of the mountains protecting the Port vineyards?

Serra do Marao.

64

Port. How many Grapes authorized?

80

65

Port. How many Grapes recommended?

29

66

Port. What is the Tinta Roriz more commonly know as in Spain?

Tempranillo

67

What does Tinta Roriz add to Port wine?

Finesse

68

What does Tinta Barroca add to Port wine?

Fruity

69

Name the 2 White Port Grapes?

Sercial ( Esgana Cao)
Malvasia

70

What are the traditional granite troughs located in the Portugal wineries called?

Lagares

71

What two new systems are in place to replicate traditional foot treading?

Piston Plungers.
Robotic Lagar

72

What is the name of the Grape based spirit added to Port?

Agurdente
Agu r dente (means, Burning Water)

73

What is the ABV of Agurdente?

77%

74

What is the ratio of Agurdente to Wine?

Wine = 4
to
Agurdente = 1

75

What is the typical fermentation period of Port?

24 to 36 hours

76

Tawny Port with an indication of age, can only be labeled?

10 / 20 / 30 / over 40

77

Madeira, What is an Canteiros?

Rack to hold maturing Barrels.

78

Where are Canteiros located?

In the lofts of merchants Lodges in Madeira

79

A Canteiros is heated by the Sun above what temperature? (C)

30 Degrees C

80

Which wines are aged in a Canteiros system?

Single Varietals.
Vintage (Frasqueira)

81

What is the minimum maturation period for a aged indicated Canteiros Madeira?

3 years

82

What is the abv% of the Grape spirit used in Fortification of Madeira?

96%

83

Typically, how many days before fortification takes place for Madeira?

1 to 5 days.

84

Which Madeira wine is fortified first?

Sweetest

85

What temperature is a Estufa brought up to and for how long?

45 to 50 Degrees C
3 Months.

86

What is a 3 year old Madeira Called?
How is it aged?

Finest
Estufa

87

What is a 5 year old Madeira Called?
Predominately what is the main grape?

Reserve
Tinta Negro.

88

What is a 10 year old Madeira Called?

Special Reserve.
Reserva Velha

89

What is a 15 year old Madeira Called?

Extra Reserve

90

What is the minimum age of a Colheita Madeira?

Minimum 5 years

91

What are the key facts to Vintage Madeira?
Minimum Age?
Grapes Used?

Minimum 20 years.
Noble

92

Muscat de Beaumes de Venise AC is from?

Rhione (just south of Gigondas)

93

Muscat de Saint Jean de Minevois AC is from?

Langedoc

94

Muscat de Rivesaltes AC is from?

Roussillon

95

Muscat de Beaumes de Venise AC. and
Muscat de Saint Jean de Minevois AC
Use which Grape?

Muscat Blanc a Petit Grains

96

Muscat de Rivesaltes AC uses which grape?

Muscat de Alexandria

97

Where is Rasteau AC located?

Rhone

98

What is Rasteau AC?

VDN
Grenache

99

Rutherglen uses which grape?

Muscat Blanc a Petit Grains

100

Rutherglens Maturation process is what?

Version of a Solera
Casks in Hot Sheds

101

What is the age of a Ruby Port

< 3 years

102

What is the age of a Reserve Ruby Port?

5 years

103

What is the age of a LBV?

4 to 6 years

104

What is the age of a Tawny Port?

Same as Ruby
< 3 Years

105

What is the age of a Reserve Tawny Port?

7 years

106

What is the age of a Vintage Port when bottled?

18 months to 3 years

107

What is the age of a Quinta Port

Same as Vintage

108

Vino Generoso (SP)

Fortified wine

109

What is a Quinta?

Single Estate

110

At what minimum age can a Estfa Madeira be sold?

2 years.

111

Which Madeira is best suited for after dinner purposes.

Malmsey is a sweeter-style of Madeira