Lymphomas, Brain Tumours, Embrynal Tumours And Terestomas Flashcards Preview

CLS 2 > Lymphomas, Brain Tumours, Embrynal Tumours And Terestomas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lymphomas, Brain Tumours, Embrynal Tumours And Terestomas Deck (14)
0

Lymphoma definition

Neoplastic proliferations of lymphoid cells of various types

1

Leukaemias definition

Neoplastic proliferations of cells of haemopoietic bone marrow

2

Classification and nomenclature

Hodgkin's disease
Or
Non Hodgkin's disease
- most common
-most important-> lymphocytic lymphomas

3

Clinical feature and behaviour of lymphomas

Most present with lymphadenopathy-> lymph node enlargement localised or general
May also infiltrate liver-> hepatomegaly, spleen-> Splenomegally or bone marrow-> marrow replacement with haematological consequences)
Infiltrate other organs-> bad prognosis
The more lymph nodes and organs involved the worse the prognosis

4

Types of Hodgkin's disease

Defined by microscopy
Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's-> good
Classical Hodgkin's:
-> lymphocyte rich-> good
-> mixed cellularity-> average
-> nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's-> mixed cellularity but different architecture-> average
-> lymphocyte depleted-> bad ->most common

5

Types of cells present in Hodgkin's

Neoplastic cell in classical Hodgkin's-> Reed-Sternberg cell
Other cells present-< lymphocytes with some eosinophils and fibroblasts

6

Lymphocytic lymphoma

B cell lymphoma low grade (differentiated) or high grade
T cell lymphoma low or high grade
Most common T affects the skin-) rashly

7

Myeloma

Tumour of mature plasma cells
Presents with bone tumours
Osteolytic
Painful
Systemic effects

8

Brain tumours

Most common primary tumours at derived from glial cells
-> astrocytes, oligodenrocytes, ependymal cells
Astrocytomas are most common

9

Astrocytomas

All behave in a malignant way-> local invasion but don't metastasise
Graded by differentiation, grade 4 worst

10

Embryonal tumours

Derived from primitive Embryonal blastic tissue
Blastomas
Nephroblastoma-> wilms tumour-> kidney
Neuralblastoma-> adrenal gland-> derived from primitive Adana medullary precursors
Retinoblastomas
Medulloblastoma
Hepatoblastoma

11

Teratomas

Tumours derived from primitive germ cells
Retain the capacity to differentiate along all 3 primitive Embryological lines-> contain ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm

12

Teratoma of the ovary

Effects young women
Benign
Invariably cystic -> contain keratin -> skin, hair, bronchial and gut epithelium, thyroid, neuroglia, bone, cartilage
Good prognosis

13

Teratoma of the testis

Young men
Painless swelling of testes
Malignant
Varies according to type
Spreads early via blood swear
Chemotherapy has high cure rate
Use tumour markers

Decks in CLS 2 Class (42):