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Flashcards in Haematology 2 Deck (17)
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What is blood?

5 litres in 70kg person
45% is RBC
1% is white blood cells and platelets
55% is plasma
Serum is the liquid you have left after plasmas forms a clot
Transport of-> water, food, gases, metabolites, hormones,
Immunity
Heat transport
Clotting/ repair

1

Full blood count

Measure of multiple parameters to asses the cellular elements of blood
3 key parameters:
Haemoglobin-> O2 carrying cap acting
Platelets-> clotting
White cells-> infection

2

Red cells

Use hb rather than number of red cells-> O2 carrying capacity
Measured in g/l
Haematocrit-> % of blood volume that is red cells l/l
Primarily for gas exchange
Buffers acidity
Biconcave and no nucleus

3

Platelets

Clotting especially in high flow areas
Circulate as smooth discs, become spiky when activated
Life span 7-14 days

4

White cells

Key mediators of immune function
Phagocytotic-> granulogytes and monocytes
Lymphoid white cells-> Bs and Ts

5

Neutrophils

Phagocytosed bacteria
Kill bacteria with hydrogen peroxide and oxygen free radicals
Multi lobed nucleus
Many fine red granules
8 hours life span

6

Monocytes

Macrophages in transit
Phagocytose any dead/dying cells or acellular material
Contain phagocytotic vacuoles
More within tissues

7

Eosinophils

Vital for anti parasite immunity
Allergic respone
Linked to IgE
Characteristic bilobed nucleus and red granules

8

Basophils

Function not clear
May be important against parasites
Important in anaphylaxis
Obscured by dark blue granules-> histamine

9

Lymphocytes

Roundish nucleus
Blue cytoplasm
Atypical lymphocytes (glandular fever) stick to surrounding red cells

10

Anaemia occurs when:

Reduced production of red cells
Increased destruction of red cells
Increased loss of red cells

11

Polycythaemia occurs when

Over production in marrow
Reduced plasma

12

Assessing anaemia

MCV-> mean cell volume-> how big the red cells are
Microcytic-> small-> can't make hb properly
Macrocytic-> big-> bone marrow problems
MCH-> mean cell Haemoglobin-> how red the cell is
Hypochromic anaemia-> reduced Haemoglobin
Reticulo types-> fresh RBCs-> start off big and get smaller as they mature-> big is maturation problems

13

Microcytic anaemia

Thalassaemia
Iron deficiency-> bleeding, pregnancy, malabsorption, lack of iron in diet
Chronic disease ->kidney, body tries to keep iron from bacteria
Sideroblastic anaemia-> bone marrow produces ringing sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells
Most important cause-> blood loss

14

Macrocytic anaemia

Reticulocytosis-> increased MCV increased Reticulocytosis
-haemorrhage until iron deficiency causes microcytosis
-haemolysis
Megloblastic anaemia-> impaired DNA synthesis in marrow precursor cells-> abnormally large red blood cells-> megaloblasts to Macrocytes
- either B12 or folate deficiency
-B12 normally absorbed via IF in the ileum
-lack of IF production-> pernicious anaemia
-removal of ileum
-inadequate folate intake-> alcoholics and patients with malabsorption
-also have neutropenia and thrombocytopenia
Marrow dysfunction-> secondary to renal, liver, thyroid dysfunction
Chemotherapy
Marrow diseases

15

Changes to platelets

Thrombocytosis-> increased platelets-> inflammation or infection or over marrow production
Thrombocytopenia-> reduced platelets-> consumption by clotting-> bleeding! infection, liver disease, under production

16

Changes to white cells

May be a cause or consequence of other pathology
Neutrophilia-> reaction to infection
Neutropenia-> under production or over consumption
Monocytsis-> chronic inflammation TB, malaria
Eosinophila-> parasites, fungi, allergies

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