Tumor Behaviour And Spread Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tumor Behaviour And Spread Deck (12)
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Pleomorphism

Cellular pleomorphism-> variation in size and shape of cells in tumour
Nuclear pleomorphism-> variation in size and shape of nuclei

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Nuclear hyperchromatism

Increased DNA
Dark staining nuclei

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Cytology of beginning tumours

Invariable well differentiated
No:
Pleomorphism
High nucleus to cytoplasm ratio
Nuclear hyperchromatism
High mitotic count
Abnormal mitoses

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Malignant cytology

Variable differentiation
Pleomorphism
High nucleus to cytoplasm ratio
Nuclear hypechromatism
High mitotic count
Abnormal mitosis

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Dysplasia

Cells that show and increased rate of cell division and incomplete maturation
Abnormal cell structure due to:
Loss of differentiation
Pleomorphism
Nuclear hyperchromatism
High nucleus to cytoplasm ratio
High mitotic activity
Normally mans invasive behaviour.
Although not always invasion through basement membrane-> carcinoma in situ or intra epithelial neoplasia
Can regress

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Local spread of malignant tumours

Direct growth in to adjacent tissues or along natural tissue planes such as nerves

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Lymphatic spread of malignancies

Invade lumen of lymph
Bits break off and embolism further down
Usually in lymph nodes
Proliferate until node is replaced by tumour

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Vascular spread of metastasis

Via veins draining the primary lesion
Or invades wall of small blood vessel
Embolism in small vessels
Common sites-> brain+CSF, lung, liver, adrenals, bone

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Transcoelomic spread of metastasis

Primary tumours in abdo of thorax can spread directly across coelomic spaces by seeding cells which the migrate to the surface of other organs

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Likely sites of metastasis

Bone metastasis often from-> breast, bronchus, kidney, thyroid, prostate
Liver metastasis-> GI tract, pancreas, breast, bronchus, kidney
Lung->tumours outside the gastrointestinal tract
Adrenals->lung and breast
Brain->stomach

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Effects of benign tumours

Bleeding
Obstruction
Hormonal secretion
Conversion to malignant
Cachexia

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Effects of malignant tumours

Cachexia
Obliteration of vital organ or system

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