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Flashcards in M1 Weather and Sea Conditions Deck (95):
1

Salinity

salinity /sə-linˈi-ti/
spec. druskingumas, sūrumas

Perhaps the fact that the salt content of human blood is approximately the same as the salinity of ocean water is a factor.

2

dredging

dredge /drej/

1 gilinti/valyti dugną

2 draguoti; naudotis draga (ko

Harbors are notorious for having fluctuating depths due to currents and poorly scheduled dredging.

3

All the while

At the same time as, usually over an extended period

All the while, heat and light rays are inbound from from our star, the sun, and interacting with earth's land and water masses.

4

fickle

fickle /fikˈl/
fickle a nepastovus, permainingas;


Adjective: fickle (fickler,ficklest)

Weather is indeed fickle stuff; it can be almost motionless one moment and the next moving rapidly with tremendous speed and force.


5

it is getting mighty good

Meteorology is the science of weather, and while forecasting weather is not yet an exact science, it is getting mighty good.

6

sticking

- to keep or remain steadily or unremittingly, as to a task, undertaking, or the like:
to stick to a job until it is finished.

- to become fastened, hindered, checked, or stationary by some obstruction:
Her zipper stuck halfway up.

It's why cruisers go around the world in a counterclockwise direction sticking to more equatorial latitudes with easterly winds and racers go around the world in a clockwise direction going as far south as possible with westerly winds.

7

clash

clash /klash/
1 susidūrimas; konfliktas;

These forces and movements also create clashes of spinning air masses.

8

akin

akin /ə-kinˈ/
giminingas (to – kam)
2 artimas, toks pat kaip, panašus


They are akin to gradient lines of height you see on a land map showing mountains.

9

gradient

gradient [‹greiˆdient] n

1 nuolydis; nuolaidumas

2 fiz. gradientas

10

subsidence

subside /səb-saidˈ/
intransitive verb
To settle, sink down
To fall into a state of quiet or calm
To diminish in intensity, amount, extent, etc, to become less

1 nusėdimas
2 (nu)slūgimas, nukritimas
3 nurimimas


High pressure areas are normally caused by a phenomenon called subsidence, meaning that as the air in the high cools it becomes denser and moves toward the ground.

11

isobar

isobar /īˈsō-bär/
noun
['aiˆseba:] n spec. izobara; izobarė

A curve running through places of equal pressure

12

height

height [haiˆt] n

1 aukštumas, aukštis; aukštybė

13

phenomenon

/fu-nomˈi-nən or -non/

14

barometer

barometer /bə-romˈi-tər/

15

Tilt

tilt¹ [tɪlt]
↪ n
1 pakrypimas, pokrypis, posvyris; pakreipimas (ir prk.);
to give a tilt pakreipti
2 užsipuolimas; ginčas, susikirtimas;
to make a tilt (at) už(si)pulti
3 dūris, smūgis (ietimi ir pan.)
4 ist. kova ietimis
◊ (at) full tilt visu greičiu, tiesiai
↪ v
1 pakrypti, pasvirti; svirinti; svarinti
2 pakreipti, palenkti (ir prk.);
to tilt one’s head pakreipti galvą;
to tilt the balance of opinion in smb’s favour nusverti nuomonę kieno naudai

16

Anticyclone

anticyclone [ˌæntɪˈsaɪkləun] n meteor. anticiklonas

A high pressure system, or "high," is an area where the atmospheric pressure is greater than that of the surrounding area. In some places highs are referred to as anticyclones.

17

Suspension

suspension [səˈspenʃn] n
1 sustabdymas, pristabdymas, sulaikymas; (laikinas) nutraukimas; atidėjimas;
suspension of sentence nuosprendžio/bausmės vykdymo atidėjimas;
suspension of arms kar. trumpos paliaubos
2 ekon. mokėjimo nutraukimas (t. p. suspension of payments)
3 atleidimas, nušalinimas (nuo pareigų); suspendavimas
4 tech. pakaba; pakabinimas;
suspension adjuster/damper pakabos korektorius
5 chem. suspensija
6 muz. užtūra
7 attr kabantis;
suspension bridge kabamasis/kabantis tiltas;
suspension points daugtaškis

Air holds water vapor in suspension. The amount of water it can hold depends on the temperature of the air and the pressure. When the pressure is lowed by air rising say, the air can not hold as much water vapor and thus the water comes out of suspension. This is why rain occurs in a rising column of air. In Lows, air is rising - pressure is decreasing = clouds. In highs, air is descending pressure is decreasing = no clouds.

18

Cold front

front [frʌnt]

A moving cold mass of air clashing into a stationary warm mass of air creates a "cold front". As the cold air strikes the warm, the warm air is immediately and violently lifted. As the warm air rises water vapor is released

19

Receding

receding [rɪˈsi:dɪŋ] a
1 tolstantis;
receding star astr. tolstanti žvaigždė;
receding hairline nuo kaktos prasidedantis plikimas
2 atlašus (apie kaktą); nusklembtas (apie smakrą)
3 mažėjantis, krintantis (apie kainas ir pan.)

20

Infinite

infinite [ˈɪnfɪnɪt]
↪ n
1 šnek. daugybė
2 (the infinite) begalybė; begalinė/beribė erdvė
3 (the Infinite) Dievas

As wind moves across land and/or bodies of water it gains or loses heat from the surface that then produces an infinite array of weather conditions. Masses of winds circulating around either low or high-pressure areas are cyclones. More tightly circulating winds are hurricanes, tornadoes or, at sea - water spouts.

21

Spout

spout [spaut]
↪ n
1 srovė, čiurkšlė; (vandens ir pan.) stulpas

22

Menacing

menacing [ˈmenəsɪŋ] a grėsmingas, grasinantis, grasus

Since fog is one of the most menacing weather conditions that may occur it is prudent to obtain knowledge about the possibility before leaving the slip or anchorage. Fog banks can often be observed as they move into an area. Whenever fog occurs, the vessel must have a plan of action, from creating noise to using radar if available.

23

Sultry

sultry [ˈsʌltrɪ] a
1 šutnus, tvankus, kaitrus;
it is sultry šutina
2 aistringas, karštas, temperamentingas;
sultry beauty aistringa gražuolė
3 geidulingas; nepadorus

Electric storms are frightening. On inland waters, they can arrive very quickly, especially on a hot sultry day. Electric storms are frequently accompanied by high and very erratic winds.

24

Erratic

erratic [ɪˈrætɪk]
↪ a
1 nepastovus, permainingas; padrikas (apie mintis)
2 nereguliarus; netvarkingas, nevienodas;
erratic pulse neritmingas pulsas
Erratic waves

25

Burn off

burn off nudeginti; sudeginti;

26

Calm

calm [kɑ:m]
↪ n
1 tyla, ramybė
2 (žmogaus) ramumas
3 jūr. tyka, štilis (t.p. calm sea)
↪ a
1 ramus, tylus;
keep/stay calm! nesijaudinkite!
2 nevėjuotas; nebanguojantis
3 šnek. nesidrovintis
↪ v (nu)raminti
□ calm down nusiraminti, (nu)rimti

27

Hurricane

hurricane [ˈhʌrɪkən] n
1 uraganas;
hurricane bombardment uraganinis bombardavimas
2 (plojimų) audra; (jausmo) protrūkis

Philosophers have repeatedly said, we all talk about the weather but there are very few things we can do about it. While this is still true, today real-time knowledge about approaching weather conditions is extremely well documented allowing us to be better prepared. Gone are the days when a hurricane will hit without warning.

28

Mature

mature [məˈtʃuə]
↪ a
1 subrendęs; pribrendęs;
mature student subrendęs studentas (vyresnis kaip 25 m. amžiaus)
2 brandus (ir prk.)

And even better, computer weather forecasting models are mature and predictions are accurate. Everybody has favorite personal weather ideas, based on aching joints or running noses about what the weather will be like. These folk tales should not be taken too seriously, but weather forecasts should.

29

Aching joints

ache [eɪk]
↪ n
1 (ilgai trunkantis) skausmas; gėla
2 troškimas
↪ v
1 skaudėti, gelti;
my head aches man skauda galvą

Aching joints - skaudantys sanariai

30

Amateurish

amateurish [ˈæmətərɪʃ] a
1 neprofesionalus, mėgėjiškas, saviveiklinis
2 diletantiškas; nevykęs

Nowadays, sources of weather information are virtually limitless. There is no excuse and it is an amateurish mistake to be caught out unawares by weather because you did not bother to look. Yes you might be miles out to sea when a weather system develops or a tropical depression might turn in your direction, but you will know it is coming and you can form a tactic to out run it prior to its arrival. Cook, Drake and Magellan had no such luxury. Take our storm tactics course!

31

Dusk

dusk [dʌsk]
↪ n prieblanda, sutemos;
at dusk temstant

Winds south force 3, perhaps 5 by dusk.

32

Imminent

imminent [ˈɪmɪnənt] n artėjantis, neišvengiamas (apie pavojų); gresiantis, grasinantis

33

Overfalls

overfall [ˈəuvəfɔ:l] n
1 hidr. slenkstis
2 jūr. sraujymė, sraunuma, srauni vieta

Depth of water, shallow water makes the waves break. This can increase around headlands or in areas of overfalls.

34

Headland

headland [ˈhedlənd] n
1 geogr. (iš)kyšulys, ragas
2 ž. ū. ne(ap)arti lauko pakraščiai

35

Marina

marina [məˈri:nə] n valčių prieplauka

36

Molecule

molecule [ˈmɔlɪkju:l] n molekulė

37

Vary

vary [ˈvɜərɪ] v
1 keisti(s), kisti, varijuoti;

38

Parcel

parcel [ˈpɑ:sl]
↪ n
1 siuntinys; ryšulys, paketas;

39

Versus

versus [ˈvə:səs] lot. prep (ppr. sutr. v., vs.)
1 teis., sport. prieš, su;

40

Gas

gas [gæs]
↪ n
1 dujos (ir chem.);

41

Isothermal

isothermal [ˌaɪsəˈθə:ml] a geogr., fiz. izoterminis, turintis tą pačią temperatūrą

42

Adiabatic

A-dee-u'ba-tik

43

Pendulum

pendulum [ˈpendjuləm]
↪ n švytuoklė, svyruoklė;
swing of the pendulum
a) švytuoklės švytavimas;

44

Squash

squash¹ [skwɔʃ]
↪ n
1 spūstis, kamšatis, grūstis

High can have highs winds, such as it pushes up against a low compressing isobars between them into a squash zone.

45

Exhaust

exhaust [ɪgˈzɔ:st]
↪ n
1 tech. išmetimas (dujų iš cilindro); (garų) išleidimas; išmetamosios dujos (t. p. exhaust gas);
exhaust steam naudotasis garas
2 aut. išmetamasis vamzdis (t. p. exhaust pipe)
↪ v

46

Intermitten

intermittent [ˌɪntəˈmɪtənt] a
1 nutrūkstantis; su pertrūkiais, kintantis;
intermittent light trūkčiojanti šviesa; šviesos mirksėjimas;
intermittent contact tech. trūkusis kontaktas
2 med. protarpinis, nutrūkstamas

Intermitten rain and drizzle would be expected behind warm front.

47

Lumpy

lumpy [ˈlʌmpɪ] a
1 grumstuotas; kauburiuotas; gumuliuotas; gumbuotas
2 vilnytas;
lumpy sea nerami jūra

48

Bellows

bellows [ˈbeləuz] n pl (žaizdro, armonikos, fotokameros) dumplės

49

Nozzle

nozzle [ˈnɔzl] n
1 (indo) snapelis
2 tech. antgalis, purkštukas, purkštas (t. p. hose nozzle)
3 sl. snapas, nosis; snukis

50

Condence

condense [kənˈdens] v
1 kondensuoti(s); (su)tirštinti; (su)tirštėti
2 glaustai išdėstyti, trumpai išreikšti; (su)trumpinti

51

Hazy

hazy [ˈheɪzɪ] a
1 miglotas, ūkanotas
2 prk. miglotas, neaiškus; netikras;
to be hazy (about) turėti miglotą supratimą (apie)

52

Wedge

wedge [wedʒ]
↪ n
1 pleištas, pakala;
to force/drive a wedge įvaryti pleištą (ir prk.)

53

Dome

dome [dəum]
↪ n
1 kupolas
2 (dangaus) skliautas
3 šnek. galva, plikė, kiaušas
4 psn., poet. didingas pastatas
↪ v
1 dengti kupolu
2 iškilti kaip kupolui

54

Bespeak

bespeak [bɪˈspi:k] v (bespoke; bespoken) knyg.
1 už(si)sakyti iš anksto; susitarti;
to bespeak smb’s favour iš anksto įgyti kieno palankumą
2 rodyti, liudyti

55

Cumulus

cumulus [ˈkju:mjuləs] n (pl -li)
1 meteor. kamuolinis debesis
2 krūva, daugybė

56

Drizzle

drizzle [ˈdrɪzl]
↪ n smulkus lietus, dulksna
↪ v
1 dulkti, dulksnoti, lynoti
2 kul. pašlakstyti, apšlakstyti

57

Monsoon

monsoon [mɔnˈsu:n] n
1 musonas (vėjas)
2 lietų sezonas (Pietų Azijoje)

58

Necessitate

necessitate [nɪˈsesɪteɪt] v
1 knyg. daryti būtiną, (pa)reikalauti (daug išlaidų ir pan.); sąlygoti, sukelti;
the changes were necessitated (by)... tuos pokyčius sąlygojo/lėmė...
2 amer. (pri)versti

59

Inclement

inclement [ɪnˈklemənt] a atšiaurus, šaltas (apie klimatą, orą; ir. prk.)

60

Solstice

solstice [ˈsɔlstɪs] n astr. saulėgrįža, saulės grąža

61

Winds are out of the southwest

Winds are from the southwest

After the front passing wind change to be northwesterly

62

Temperate

temperate [ˈtempərət] a
1 nuosaikus, saikingas; santūrus;
temperate in eating saikingai valgantis
2 vidutinis (apie klimatą ir pan.)

It is very important to keep an hourly observation of the barometer when at sea, particularly i temperate zones where a movement of highs and lows with their variations in weather is common.

63

Inclement

inclement [ɪnˈklemənt] a atšiaurus, šaltas (apie klimatą, orą; ir. prk.)

63

Hazard

hazard [ˈhæzəd]
↪ n
1 rizika, pavojus;
to be an environmental hazard kelti pavojų aplinkai;
smoking is a health hazard rūkymas pavojingas sveikatai
2 šansas;
at hazard kaip pasiseks, ant laimės;
at all hazards žūtbūt, bet kuriomis aplinkybėmis
3 azartinis lošimas kauliukais
↪ v
1 rizikuoti
2 drįsti;

We use weather forecasts to avoid hazard.

64

Synoptic

synoptic(al) [sɪˈnɔptɪk(l)] a sinoptinis, apžvalginis; konspektyvus;
synoptic(al) chart [map] sinoptinis jūrlapis [žemėlapis]

65

Synopsis

synopsis [sɪˈnɔpsɪs] n (pl -ses [-si:z]) konspektas, trumpa apžvalga;
synopsis of a thesis disertacijos santrauka

66

Geostrophic

Adjective: geostrophic
|ˌjee‑u'strow‑fik|
(meteorology) referring to the balance in the atmosphere between the horizontal Coriolis forces and the horizontal pressure forces • Another example of a flow without acceleration which is very important to the oceanographer is the geostrophic motionDerived
Adverb: geostrophically
This definition is from WordWeb

67

Meteorological

meteorological [ˌmi:tɪərəˈlɔdʒɪkl] a meteorologinis, meteorologijos; atmosferinis, atmosferos

68

Latent

latent [ˈleɪtənt] a slaptas, užslėptas, nematomas, latentinis;
latent heat fiz. slaptoji šiluma;
latent image fot. paslėptasis atvaizdas

Moisture plays its part in moving energy around in the form of heat and latent heat.

69

Bonfire

bonfire [ˈbɔnfaɪə] n laužas;
to make a bonfire (of) (su)deginti (ant laužo), (su)naikinti;
Bonfire Night lapkričio penktoji (kai Gajaus Fokso atvaizdas deginamas ant laužo)

70

Bulge

bulge [bʌldʒ]
↪ n
1 išsipūtimas, pūpsojimas, išsikišimas; (linijos) kreivumas
2 (kiekio, masto) laikinas padidėjimas;
demographic [statistical] bulge demografinis [statistinis] padidėjimas
3 amer. šnek. pranašumas;
to have the bulge on smb būti pranašesniam už ką
4 kar. (fronto) kyšulys, smaigalys
↪ v
1 pūpsoti; atsikišti, išsikišti; iš(si)pūsti (t. p. bulge out)
2 deformuoti(s)
3 (pa)storėti, pri(si)pildyti (apie kišenę, kuprinę ir pan.);
his pockets were bulging with apples jo kišenės buvo prikimštos obuolių

A bulge of warm subtropical air pushes into a cooler northern air mass and begins to swirl upwards.

71

Mare

mare¹ [mɜə] n kumelė; asilė
◊ mare’s nest iliuzija, apgaulė;
to find a mare’s nest @ pataikyti kaip pirštu į dangų; skaudžiai apsigauti;
the grey mare is the better horse @ moteris laiko tris namų kampus

Mackerel sky and mares' tails, make tall ships carry small sails.

72

Mackerel

mackerel [ˈmækrəl] n (pl mackerel) zool. skumbrė;
jack/horse mackerel stauridė
◊ mackerel sky baltų debesėlių išmargintas dangus

73

Streak

streak [stri:k]
↪ n
1 ruoželis, dryželis; tarpsluoksnis, sluoksnelis;
streak of light šviesos ruožas;
streak of lightning žaibo blyksnis/blykstelėjimas

Streaky - dryžuotas

74

Hail

hail¹ [heɪl]
↪ n kruša (ir prk.), ledai;
a hail of bullets/lead [of abuse] kulkų [keiksmų] kruša

75

Heap

heap [hi:p]
↪ n
1 krūva;
to pile up smth in a heap sukrauti ką į krūvą
2 (džn. pl) šnek. daugybė, aibė;
heaps of time daugybė laiko, @ marios laiko

Cumulo - heap

76

Sprinkle

sprinkle [ˈsprɪŋkl]
↪ n
1 purkštimas, šlakstymas; barstymas
2 šlakas, žiupsnelis (of);
sprinkle of rain purkšna, keletas lietaus lašų;
sprinkle of snow kelios kruopelės sniego, snyguriavimas
↪ v
1 (api)purkšti, (ap)šlakstyti, (ap)taškyti; papurkšti; (pa)barstyti, apibarstyti (with)
2 pass iš(si)mėtyti, iš(si)barstyti (on)
3 pass prk. padailinti, išmarginti;
sprinkled with quotations prikaišiotas citatų
4 lynoti, šlaknoti, krapnoti

77

Opaque

opaque [əuˈpeɪk]
↪ a
1 nepermatomas; matinis; tamsus
2 neaiškus, nesuprantamas
3 kvailas, bukas
↪ n (the opaque) tamsa

If front is coming, clouds will thicken and lower, becoming heavier and more opaque as they do so.

78

Winds pick up

Winds however may not pick up much but may shift toward the equator in origin.

79

Cirrus

cirrus [ˈsɪrəs] n (pl cirri [ˈsɪraɪ])
1 meteor. plunksniniai debesys
2 bot., zool. ūseliai, čiuptuvėliai

80

Stratus

stratus [ˈstreɪtəs] n (pl -ti) meteor. sluoksniniai debesys

81

Put the wind to starboard

Plauk dešiniu halsu

To escape, put the wind to starboard in the northern hemisphere northern [ˈnɔ:ðən] hemisphere [ˈhemɪsfɪə] on either side of the storm, put the wind to port in the southern hemisphere.

82

Patch

patch [pætʃ]
↪ n
1 lopas, lopinys;

Whitecaps start occuring on wind waves at about 10 knots of wind, creating a seascape with many small white patches appearing and disappearing.

83

A glance to seaward

seaward [ˈsi:wəd]
↪ a nukreiptas į jūros pusę, jūros link
↪ adv jūros link

85

Chopy

choppy [ˈtʃɔpɪ] a
1 banguotas (apie jūrą, ežerą)
2 gūsiuotas, šuoringas (apie vėją)
3 nepastovus, kintamas, kaitus, mainus

Waves proceeding in a direction opposed to the current can mount up to sizes much larger than surrounding areas without current. Waves in this case will also be steeper and closer together, making for a potentially very choppy wet ride.

86

Batten

batten¹ [ˈbætn]
↪ n lentjuostė, lenta (sutvirtinimui);
batten wall lentų/lentinė pertvara
↪ v
1 sutvirtinti/apkalti lentomis/juostelėmis
2 jūr. sandarinti, užtaisyti (liukus; ppr. batten down)

If you do enter then, batten the hatches.

87

Interval

interval [ˈɪntəvl] n

88

Abundance

abundance [əˈbʌndəns] n gausa, gausybė, perteklius;

Nowadays there is an abundance of weather information available to the seaman.

89

Puffy

puffy [ˈpʌfɪ] a
1 išpurtęs, pabrinkęs;
to become puffy pabrinkti, papursti
2 putlus, purus
3 uždusęs, dusulingas
4 gūsiuotas (apie vėją)
5 išpūstas, pompastiškas (apie stilių, kalbą)
6 ret. pasipūtęs, išpuikęs

How are the clouds? Scattered smaller puffy cumulus?

90

Be on the lookout for

Be on the lookout for ligthning.

on the lookout (for someone or something)
watchful for someone or something. Be on the lookout for signs of a storm. I'm on the lookout for John, who is due here any minute.

91

Witty

witty [ˈwɪtɪ] a sąmojingas, šmaikštus, liežuvingas

92

Drench

drench [drentʃ]
↪ n
1 permerkimas
2 liūtis
3 didelė vaistų dozė (gyvuliui)
↪ v
1 (ppr. pass) kiaurai permerkti
2 supilti (gyvuliui) vaistus

After rounds of storms have drenched the region leading tomwidespread flooding, a ridge of high pressure will bring dry weather.

93

lee shore

The terms "lee shore" and "windward" or "ward shore" are nautical terms used to describe a stretch of shoreline. A lee shore is one that is to the lee side of a vessel — meaning the wind is blowing towards it. A weather shore has the wind blowing from inland over it out to sea. For example, a person standing on a shore when the wind is blowing out to sea (or any large body of water) is standing on a weather shore. If the wind is blowing into shore from the sea, the person is on a lee shore.

The "lee" of a boat is the side that the wind touches last as it crosses the boat; in the diagram it is left or port side of the boat. The boat in the diagram has a lee shore to its west. In the diagram, the other side of the island, to the far west, has a weather shore. The wind blows over the shore as it heads to sea. This wind, because it blows from east to west, is called an "easterly" wind. This is because the source of a wind is more ascertainable or knowable than its destination, so winds are named for their source.

94

"Windward", "leeward", and "lee"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_shore

By definition, "windward" is the side of an island where the predominant wind travels from the sea onto the island. "Leeward" is the side of an island where the predominant wind travels from the interior of the island to the sea.

The definition of "leeward" is based on its usage: Adjective: on the side away from the wind; "on the leeward side of the island". Adverb: toward [in the direction of] the wind; "they were sailing leeward". Noun: the side of something that is sheltered from the wind, or the direction in which the wind is blowing; "to the leeward". The traditional nautical pronunciations are the elided forms /ˈljuːərd/[1] and /ˈwɪnərd/, pronounced "loowerd" where the first syllable is spoken very briefly, almost as "l'ward". The literal pronunciations, /ˈliːwərd/ and /ˈwɪndwərd/, are now more common, and "lee" by itself is always pronounced as it is spelled. The pronunciation for the Leeward and Windward Islands and the Leeward Antilles is normally the latter form, with the long "e".

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lee

lee [li:]
n
1 apsauga, priedanga
2 užuovėja; užuovėjinė/pavėjinė pusė ( t. p. lee side)
Ä a pavėjinis, užuovėjinis;
lee shore pavėjinis krantas