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Flashcards in Macronutrients Deck (45)
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1

Name the non-essential amino acids.

Alanine
Arginine
Asparagine
Aspartic Acid
Cysteine
Glutamine
Glutamic Acid
Glycine
Proline
Serine
Tyrosine

"4 A's, 1 C, 3 G's, and a P.S.T."
(Remember, begins with "Alan")

2

Which carrier protein binds Vitamin B12 once it has been taken up by enterocytes and also transports this vitamin to tissues?
a. Haptocorrin
b. Transcobalamin I (TCN1)
c. Transcobalamin II (TCN2)
d. Intrinsic Factor

c. Transcobalamin II (TCN2)

Transcobalamin II (TCN2) binds cobalamin once it has been taken up by enterocytes of the terminal ileum and the "Intrinsic Factor-Vitamin B12" complex has been degraded. Trancobalamin II is then involved with the transport of Vitamin B12 to the tissues.

3

What do the neck cells of the stomach secrete?
a. gastrin
b. mucus
c. gastric lipase
d. pepsinogen

b. mucus

4

Which of the following is incorrect?
a. maltose=glucose+glucose
b. maltose=glucose+galactose
c. lactose=glucose+galactose
d. sucrose=glucose+fructose

b. maltose=glucose+galactose

5

Identify the element found in a protein that is not present in a carbohydrate.
a. Oxygen
b. Hydrogen
c. Nitrogen
d. Carbon

c. Nitrogen

6

What is the main nutrient required for glycolysis?
a. Potassium
b. Biotin
c. Pantothenic acid
d. Magnesium

d. Magnesium

7

What mechanism produces ATP?
a. oxidative decarboxylation
b. oxidative hydrolation
c. aerobic transamination
d. oxidative phosphorylation

d. oxidative phosphorylation

8

Name the essential amino acids.

PVT TIM HALL:
Phenylalanine
Valine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Isoleucine
Methionine
Histidine
Arginine* (sometimes not included in essential list)
Leucine
Lysine

* sometimes not included in essential list; essential for infants/children

9

A serving of beer is defined as:
a. 6 oz
b. 8 oz
c. 10 oz
d. 12 oz

d. 12 oz

10

What is the most abundant protein in the blood?
a. albumin
b. hemoglobin
c. transferrin
d. ceruloplasmin

a. albumin

11

The role of HCl in the stomach includes all of the following EXCEPT:
a. denaturing salivary amylase
b. unfolding & denaturing secondary, tertiary and quartenary proteins
c. breaking down peptide bonds
d. activating pepsinogen to pepsin

c. breaking down peptide bonds

Pepsin is a protease that cleaves bonds in proteins. It breaks down the proteins in food into individual peptides (shorter segments of amino acids).

12

Which carbohydrates cannot be broken down by our body's digestive enzymes?
a. trisaccharides
b. oligosaccharides
c. polysaccharides
d. disaccharides

b. oligosaccharides

13

Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding dietary fiber sources?
a. beta-glucans include: mushrooms, barley, oats
b. pectin include: psyllium and gums
c. mucilages include: okra, flax, aloe, chia & figs
d. lignans include: vegetables, flour
e. hemicellulose includes: cabbage, apples, legumes & root vegetables
f. cellulose includes: brain, broccoli, whole grains

b. pectin include: psyllium and gums

Pectin actually includes:
-rinds of citrus fruit -pulp of berries

Soluble fiber: swells/dissolves in water (beta-glucans, psyllium, pectin, hydrocolloids (gelatin), gums)
Insoluble fiber: unchanged in water; "roughage" (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignans)
Nonfermentable fiber: resistant starch, inulin

14

The Citric Acid Cycle creates how many net ATP molecules for every molecule of glucose?
a. 0
b. 2
c. 4
d. 6

b. 2

15

How are most carbs transferred?
a. active transport
b. ATP pump
c. passive diffusion
d. facilitated diffusion

d. facilitated diffusion

Facilitated diffusion moves nutrients down the concentration gradient and is usually attached to a lipid soluble membrane carrier protein.

16

How much daily dietary fiber is recommended for adults?
a. 15-25 g
b. 20-25g
c. 25-30g
d. 25-35g

d. 25-35g

17

The actual order of the amino acids in a protein is determined by DNA. This best describes:
a. the primary structure of a protein
b. the secondary structure of a protein
c. the tertiary structure of a protein
d. the quaternary structure of a protein

a. the primary structure of a protein

18

Name the 3 branched-chain amino acids.

Leucine, isoleucine, valine

19

How many exchange lists are on the Diabetic Exchange List meal planning system?
a. 3
b. 4
c. 7
d. 10

c. 7

https://diabetesed.net/page/_files/THE-DIABETIC-EXCHANGE-LIST.pdf

20

One of the primary organs affected by CCK is:
a. esophagus
b. small intestine
c. liver
d. pancreas

d. pancreas

21

A glycoprotein, which is secreted by the salivary glands, is called Transcobalamin I (TCN1) . What is its primary role?
a. To help pancreatic proteases degrade Haptocorrin
b. To allow Haptocorrin to release Vitamin B12 in the stomach so it can be denatured
c. To produce a Haptocorrin-Vitamin B12 complex to protect cobalamin from acid degradation in the stomach
d. To help degrade the Intrinsic Factor-Vitamin B12 complex in the ileum.

c. To produce a Haptocorrin-Vitamin B12 complex to protect cobalamin from acid degradation in the stomach

Transcobalamin I (TCN1) (a.k.a. Haptocorrin, R-factor, and R-protein), is a glycoprotein produced by the salivary glands of the mouth. It primarily serves to protect cobalamin (Vitamin B12) from acid degradation in the stomach by producing a Haptocorrin-Vitamin B12 complex. Once the complex has traveled to the more neutral duodenum, pancreatic proteases degrade haptocorrin, releasing free cobalamin, which now binds to IF for absorption by ileal enterocytes.

22

What substance is secreted by the parietal cells to help absorb B12?
a. intrinsic factor
b. protease
c. bicarbonate
d. amylase

a. intrinsic factor

23

What is the most abundant protein in the body?
a. albumin
b. myosin
c. collagen
d. keratin

c. collagen

24

Which amino acid is involved in disulfide bond formation?
a. alanine
b. cysteine
c. threonine
d. isoleucine

b. cysteine

25

What is considered a moderate alcohol intake?
a. For men and women, no more than 1 drink per day
b. For men, no more than 2 drinks per day and for women, no more than 1 drink per day
c. For men, no more than 2 drinks per day and for women, no more than 2 drinks per day
d. For men, no more than 3 drinks per day and for women, no more than 2 drinks per day

b. For men, no more than 2 drinks per day and for women, no more than 1 drink per day

26

Where in the cell is the Electron Transport Chain?
a. In the mitochondrial inner membrane
b. In the cytoplasm
c. In the cytosol
d. In the endoplasmic reticulum

a. In the mitochondrial inner membrane

27

The role of HCl in the stomach includes all of the following except:
a. denaturing salivary amylase
b. unfolding & denaturing secondary, tertiary and quartenary proteins
c. breaking down peptide bonds
d. activating pepsinogen to pepsin

c. breaking down peptide bonds

Pepsin is a protease that cleaves bonds in proteins. It breaks down the proteins in food into individual peptides (shorter segments of amino acids).

28

How much daily protein do male adolescents, ages 14-18, require?
a. 52g per day; 0.85g/kg of body weight
b. 46g per day; 0.85g/kg of body weight
c. 52g per day; 0.95g/kg of body weight

a. 52g per day; 0.85g/kg of body weight

29

Primary protein structure involves what type of bond?
a. hydrogen
b. covalent
c. ionic
d. hydrophobic

a. hydrogen

30

A serving of liquor is defined as:
a. 1.5 oz
b. 2 oz
c. 3 oz
d. 3.5 oz

a. 1.5 oz