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Flashcards in Micronutrients Deck (206)
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1

You are working with a client who has anemia that is unresponsive to iron
therapy. Which of the following might you recommend to support your efforts?
a. copper
b. zinc
c. copper & zinc
d. none of the above

a. copper

2

The ________________ of the small intestine secrete the enzyme, ________________, which converts trypsinogen to trypsin.
a. mucosal cells, endopeptidase
b. enterocytes, enterokinase
c. goblet cells, dipeptidase
d. enterocytes, cholecystokinin

b. enterocytes, enterokinase

3

Metabolism of vitamin B6 to the primary coenzyme form, pyridoxal phosphate, requires the action of what other B vitamin?
a. GSH
b. NAD
c. THF
d. FMN

d. FMN

4

Which of the following is the most bioavailable form of calcium supplementation?
a. calcium carbonate
b. calcium citrate
c. calcium sulphate
d. calcium phosphate

b. calcium citrate

5

To absorb folate consumed from green, leafy vegetables, _____.
a. phosphate groups much be removed by the action of alkaline phosphatase
b. glutamate must be transaminated to form alpha-ketoglutarate
c. glutamic acid molecules must be removed
d. glutamic acid molecules must be added

c. glutamic acid molecules must be removed

6

Pernicious anemia is identified by the _____ test, which involves using radioactive _____.
a. Methylmalonic acid, Vitamin B12
b. RBC folate, folate
c. RBC serum, Vitamin B6
d. Schilling, Vitamin B12

d. Schilling, Vitamin B12

7

Which of the following may be due to a defect in copper metabolism (found
mainly in young males)?
a. Menkes disease
b. Wilson disease
c. Acrodermatitis enteropathica
d. All of these diseases may be due to such a defect

a. Menkes disease

8

The vitamin K content in foods is reduced by:
a. alkaline environments
b. tannins
c. pasteurization
d. irradiation

a. alkaline environments

9

The increased risk of kidney stones with hypercalcemia is typically due to:
a. excess dietary intake of calcium
b. excess supplemental intake of calcium (carbonate form)
c. increased excretion of calcium by the kidneys
d. all of the above

c. increased excretion of calcium by the kidney

10

Which of the following is NOT a type of carotenoid?
a. beta-carotene and alpha-carotene
b. beta-cryptoxanthin & zeaxanthin
c. lutein
d. glucomannon

d. glucomannon

Carotenoid types:
Beta-carotene Alpha-carotene
Beta-cryptoxanthin Zeaxanthin
Lutein Lycopene

11

Where is vitamin C mainly absorbed?
a. the duodenum
b. the duodenum and jejenum
c. the jejenum and ileum
d. the ileum

c. the jejenum and ileum

12

What levels of Vitamin D supplementation and supplementation duration are observed in Vitamin D toxicity?
a. Daily intakes of 20,000 IU or higher for several months b. Daily intakes of 10,000 IU or higher for several months
c. Daily intakes of 5,000 IU
or higher for several months
d. None of the above as Vitamin D toxicity is unlikely.

b. Daily intakes of 10,000 IU or higher for several months

Reference: Gropper, p. 399

13

Why is colostrum yellow? It has high amounts of:
a. riboflavin
b. Vitamin A
c. niacin
d. antioxidants

b. Vitamin A

Colostrum is a rich source of Vitamin A.

14

Which nutrient has a synergistic relationship with CoEnzyme Q10 (CoQ10)?
A. Vitamin C
b. Vitamin A
c. Vitamin E
d. Vitamin D

c. Vitamin E

15

What is the normal pH range of serum bicarbonate (HCO3) on an arterial blood gas result?
a. 20-25 mEq/L
b. 22-26 mEq/L
c. 25-27 mEq/L
d. 25-30 mEq/L

b. 22-26 mEq/L

16

Cheilosis is a symptom of a dietary deficiency of which vitamin?
a. niacin
b. ascorbic acid
c. riboflavin
d. biotin

c. riboflavin

17

Which amino acid may antagonize the functions of Vitamin B6 and impair the conversion of tryptophan to niacin, when eaten in excess in the diet?
a. lycine
b. arginine
c. leucine
d. methionine

c. leucine

18

Which one is incorrectly matched?
a. major extracellular cation is sodium/Na+
b. major extracellular anion is bicarbonate/HCO3-
c. major intracellular cation is potassium/K+
d. minor intracellular anion is phosphate ions
e. all of the above are correct

e. all of the above are correct

another key extracellular anion is Chloride (Cl-)

Cations are positive (+); anions are negative (-)

19

A positive taste test (i.e. suggestive of deficiency) and an alkaline phosphatase
lab of <70 U/L indicate a possible ________________ deficiency.
a. copper
b. iron
c. zinc
d. Vitamin A

c. zinc

20

Which statement below is incorrect?
a. lutein carotenoids include: beets, kiwi & eggs
b. beta-carotene carotenoids include: salmon & oranges
c. lycopene carotenoids include: tomatoes & watermelon
d. zeaxanthin carotenoids include: orange peppers, eggs & corn

b. beta-carotene carotenoids include: salmon tomatoes & oranges is incorrect.

Beta-carotene carotenoids actually include:
carrots (also have alpha-carotene)
canteloupe, broccoli, squash, peas, spinach

21

B6-dependent transamination reactions are important in which process?
a. glyconeogenesis
b. gluconeogenesis
c. heme synthesis
d. more than one of the above

b. gluconeogenesis

22

Plasma buffers act as __________ if plasma pH goes above 7.45, and __________, if plasma goes above 7.35.
a. acids, bases
b. neutralizers, immobiliziers
c. bases, acids
d. bases, neutralizers

a. acids, bases

If serum pH is greater than 7.45, it's ALKALEMIA, so need an acid to lower pH (need more H+).

If serum pH is lower than 7.45, it's ACIDEMIA, so need an acid to increase pH (need less H+).

23

Hypervitamonisis A can be caused by ingesting large amounts of supplemental vitamin A, such as:
a. 10,000 IU daily
b. 15,000 IU daily
c. 50,000 IU daily
d. 72,000 IU daily

c. 50,000 IU daily

24

Vitamin B1/thiamin is a co-factor for which biochemical reactions?

1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (part of TLCFN)
2. Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
3. Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase
4. pyruvate decarboxylase (+Mg)
5. transketolase in the PPP (glutathione production; FA & nucleic acid synthesis)

25

What is the name of the glucose transporter in the liver?
a. GLUT1
b. GLUT2
c. GLUT3
d. GLUT4

b. GLUT2

"2 live" in the liver

26

Your client is a 35yo female with a diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia. After 3 months of supplementing with non-heme iron and vitamin C, her iron status has not improved. What other deficiencies might you consider?
a. zinc
b. biotin
c. selenium
d. Vitamin A

d. Vitamin A

Studies with anemic children and women from areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic, have shown a beneficial effect on Fe status of supplemental vitamin A in addition to Fe supplementation.

27

Restless leg syndrome can occur with a deficiency of ________________?
a. copper
b. iron
c. zinc

b. iron

28

Which nutrition assessment method is used to collect dietary info from a community?
a. food frequency questionnaire
b. food diary
c. 24-hour recall
d. food survey

a. food frequency questionnaire

29

Which classical vitamin deficiency is known for the four Ds: dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, and death?
a. thiamin
b. niacin
c. biotin
d. folic acid

b. niacin

30

Supplement of which nutrient may be effective for treating AI thyroiditis and dyslipidemia?
a. folic acid
b. iodine
c. selenium
d. zinc

c. selenium

May improve T4 to T3 conversion.
Antioxidant to support glutathione production.