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Flashcards in Varia Deck (42)
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1

All of the following are foods that contain high-water content except:
a. lettuce, celery, and cucumber
b. watermelon, milk, and oranges
c. butter, walnuts, and ground beef
d. broccoli, cabbage, and carrots

c. butter, walnuts, and ground beef

2

Which of the following is NOT a pathogenic cause of kidney stones?
a. Hypercalciuria
b. Hyperoxaluria
c. Hypocitraturia
d. Hypocalciuria
e. Primary hyperparathyroidism

d. Hypocalciuria

3

Which of the following foods is permissible on a low-residue diet?
a. coconut
b. dried fruit
c. potatoes
d. bananas

d. bananas

"residue" = fiber; need to 'go easy' on GI tract
Think: IBD (Crohn's/UC), bowel surgery, diverticular disease. Need easy to digest foods with no seeds, peels, pulp.

4

Which organ regulates thirst?
a. kidneys
b. hypothalamus
c. pituitary gland
d. adrenal glands

b. hypothalamus

5

Clients on a low-histamine diet should avoid all of the following foods except:
a. citrus fruits
b. grass-fed beef
c. sausages
d. dark chocolate

b. grass-fed beef

6

Which type of nutrients moves through the intestines quicker & generally helps with bowel movements?
a. soluble fiber
b. starch
c. insoluble fiber
d. glycogen

c. insoluble fiber

Insoluble fiber is found in wheat, bran, vegetables, and whole grains.

7

Which is the heterozygous genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene?
a. MTHFR677CC
b. MTHFR677CT
c. MTHFR677TC
d. MTHFR677TT

b. MTHFR677CT

heterozygous genotype: 1 abnormal allele

Note: homozygous genotypes are:
MTHFR677CC - normal alleles
MTHFR677TT - 2 abnormal alleles

8

What characterizes the MTHFR 677TT genotype?
a. increased plasma homocysteine
b. decreased methylation reaction activity, which is approximately 30-35% of "normal" MTHFR activity.
c. decreased methylation reaction activity, which is approximately 70% of "normal" MTHFR activity.
d. A and B only.
e. None of the above is accurate.

d. A and B only.

9

What does MTHFR stand for?

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase

It catalyzes 5,10-methylene THF to 5-methyl THF.

10

What occurs to cause an alteration in the DNA sequence of MTHFR 677? The nucleotide, ___________, is substituted for the normal nucleotide, ______________.
a. thymine, cytosine
b. adenine, guanine
c. thymine, guanine
d. adenine, cytosine

a. thymine, cytosine

Substitution of the nucleotide, THYMINE (T, abnormal), for the nucleotide, CYTOSINE (C, normal).

11

What can elevated bilirubin lead to?
a. jaundice
b. neurotoxicity
c. sore limbs
d. A and B only

d. A and B only

12

Which of the following disorders affects the branched chain amino acids and cause seizures and/or death?
a. cystinuria
b. PKU
c. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)
d. homocystinuria

c. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)

MUSD: an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that affects the branched-chain a.a. Gets its name from the sweet smell or urine which occurs in infants with MSUD>

13

Which co-factors are needed for Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase?
a. Vitamin B6 & Vitamin B12
b. folate & Vitamin B12
c. Vitamin B12 & NADPH
d. NADPH & FAD

d. NADPH & FAD

14

Which of the following guidelines is NOT correct for patients with dumping syndrome?
a. limit fluids to 4oz per meal
b. small, frequent meals
c. remain reclined after meals for 30 minutes
d. eat a protein at each meal
e. all of the above are correct guidelines for patients with dumping syndrome

e. all of the above are correct guidelines for patients with dumping syndrome

15

Which of the following genes is associated with Celiac Disease?
a. ENOS
b. APOE
c. HLA-DQ2
d. MTHFR

c. HLA-DQ2

HLA-DQ2 is one of two main CD genes and is most common gene implicated in CD.

16

Which of the following has an antagonistic effect on Vitamin B6?
a. methionine
b. leucine
c. tryptophan
d. arginine

b. leucine

Excess dietary leucine may antagonize vitamin B6 function and impair the conversion of tryptophan to nicotonic acid.

17

Daily intake requirements increase during pregnancy for all of the following nutrients except:
a. Vitamin C
b. Vitamin E
c. selenium
d. manganese

b. Vitamin E

18

Water accounts for what % of total body weight in lean adults?
a. 45-55%
b. 50-60%
c. 60-70%
d. 75-85%

c. 60-70%

19

Which clients may be at higher risk for dehydration due to a decreased sensitivity to thirst?
a. older individuals
b. ill people
c. infants
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

20

Which is the "wild type" allele?
a. MTHFR677CC
b. MTHFR677CT
c. MTHFR677TC
d. MTHFR677TT

a. MTHFR677CC

21

4-hydroxyisoleucine is a phytonutrient that may assist in blood sugar regulation. This phytonutrient can be found in:
a. bitter melon
b. soybeans
c. fenugreek seeds
d. cinnamon

c. fenugreek seeds
Fenugreek seeds have 4-hydroxyisoleucine.
Bitter melon has charantin.
Cinnamon has cinnamaldehyde.
Soybeans have isoflavones.
Oats and barley have beta-glucans.

22

When an alteration occurs in the DNA sequence of MTHFR 677, which amino acid is substituted for alanine?
a. tyrosine
b. cysteine
c. valine
d. isoleucine

c. valine

A molecule of valine is inserted into the amino acid sequence, instead of alanine.

23

Water accounts for what % of total body weight in obese adults?
a. 45-55%
b. 50-60%
c. 60-70%
d. 75-85%

a. 45-55%

24

Fissuring of the tongue is a clinical sign for which nutrient deficiencies/sufficiencies?
a. riboflavin
b. niacin
c. vitamin C
d. zinc

b. niacin

25

Which of the following nutrients is responsible for the remethylation of tetrahydrofolate after conversion of methyltetrahydrofolate + homocystein to tetrahydrofolate + methionine?
a. Vitamin B6
b. Vitamin B5
c. Vitamin B12
d. folate

a. Vitamin B6

26

Grapefruit is contraindicated with a number of medications because it contains:
a. capsaicin
b. furanocoumarins
c. saponins
d. phlobatannin

b. furanocoumarins

Furanocoumarins inhibit the P-450 3A4 enzyme.

27

All of the following SNPs are associated with weight management, except:
a. ADRB3
b. FTO,
c. DAO
d. T2DM

c. DAO

28

Which of the following is not true concerning renal failure?
a. potassium usually requires restriction
b. prealbumin is a good nutritional marker
c. consuming adequate protein is challenging
d. dialysis increased protein needs

b. prealbumin is a good nutritional marker

In renal failure, prealbumin is not a good nutritional marker because values are routinely elevated.

29

Sulfur is an important part of all of the following except:
a. cartilage
b. insulin
c. erythropoiesis
d. glutathione

c. erythropoiesis

Sulfur is an integral part of:
-glutathione, insulin, keratin & other glycosaminoglycans in skin, cartilage, and connective tissue
Sources: eggs, seafood, organ meats, meats, poultry, some nuts

30

Which of the following is not true about the food additive, tartrazine?
a. it may cause severe allergic reactions
b. it is red dye No. 2
c. the FDA requires its listing on food labels
d. the FDA requires its listing on drug labels

b. it is red dye No. 2

Tartrazine is yellow dye No. 5 color additive in food & drugs.