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Flashcards in Main Deck (160):

Salt deficiency.

A deficiency (deficiencies) 


A deficiency - a state of not having, or not having enough, of something that is needed. (C1)


Justice is swift.

Thank you for your swift reply.

The gazelle is one of the swiftest and most graceful of animals.

Walking swiftly, he was at the office within minutes.

With amazing swiftness, the airline agent got our ticket changed, and we boarded the plane just as it was about to leave


Swift /swɪft/​



Swift - happening or moving quickly or within a short time, especially in a smooth and easy way. (C2)


I look daft with one shoe.

You daft idiot!

It was a pretty daft idea anyway.


Daft (adj) (uk informal) /dɑːft/

Daft - silly or stupid.


This poor man just died of fright.

I lay in bed shaking with fright.

You gave her such a fright turning the lights out like that.

You gave me the fright of my life (= a very severe fright), jumping out of the shadows like that!


Fright /fraɪt/​

Fright - the feeling of fear, especially if felt suddenly, or an experience of fear that happens suddenly. (C1)



The only place you'd find a Huon particle now is a remnant in the heart of the Tardis.

The remnants of last night's meal.


A remnant /ˈremnənt/​

A remnant - a small piece or amount of something that is left from a larger original piece or amount.




The bride shall join her groom.

A groom /ɡruːm/ ​

A groom -  1. A man who is getting married. (B1)

2. Someone who cleans and looks after horses.


I like him - he talks in rhyme and owns a whimsical store in a failing mall.

Whimsical (adj) /ˈwɪmzɪkəl/ 

Whimsically (adverb)

Whimsicality (noun)

Whimsical - unusual and strange in a way that might be funny or annoying.


Мне он нравится - он говорит в рифму и держит причудливый магазин в непопулярном торговом центре.


Outline resembles the inferior species known as Cybermen.

You resemble your mother very closely.

To resemble (resembled)


Inferior (adj) /ɪnˈfɪəriər/

To resemble - to look like or be like someone or something. (C1)

Inferior - 1. not good, or not as good as someone or something else; 2. lower, or of lower rank. (C1)

Внешний вид напоминает низшую расу киберлюдей.


You propose an alliance?

[ + that ] I propose that we wait until the budget has been announced before committing ourselves to any expenditure.

[ + -ing verb ] He proposed dealing directly with the suppliers.

I remember the night your father proposed to me.

To propose (proposed)


An alliance /əˈlaɪəns/​

To propose - 1. To offer or suggest a possible plan or action for other people to consider. 2. To ask someone to marry you. (B2)

An alliance - a group of countries, political parties, or people who have agreed to work together because of shared interests or aims; an agreement to work with someone else to try to achieve the same thing. (C2)




This is not war. This is pest control.

A pest /pest/​

A pest - 1. An insect or small animal that is harmful or damages crops. 2. An annoying person, especially a child.

Это не война. Это борьба с вредителями. (Как про насекомых)


Time Lord science will restore Dalek supremacy.

To restore (restored)


Supremacy /suːˈpreməsi/​

To restore - to return something or someone to an earlier good condition or position. (B2)

Supremacy - the leading or controlling position; the position of being the best.




Cyberleader: We will retreat through the breach.

The government is retreating from its promises.

To retreat (retreated) 



To retreat - [ I often + adv/prep ] 1. To go away from a place or person in order to escape from fighting or danger; 2. To decide not to do something, or to stop believing something, because it causes too many problems. (C2)




This is abominable behavior.

He behaved abominably towards her.

Abominable (adj)  


Abominably (adverb)

Abominable - very bad or unpleasant.




He will perish at my hand.

To perish /ˈperɪʃ/​

To perish - to die, especially in an accident or by being killed, or to be destroyed.


Он погибнет от моей руки.


It's marvelous (American)

Paul is a marvelous dancer.

Marvelous (adjective [ not gradable ])


Marvelously (adverb)

Marvelous - extremely good. (B1)


Это чудесно.

Пол - изумительный танцор.



Salutation (Formal)


Salutations - a greeting in words or actions, or the words used at the beginning of a letter or speech.




Require urgent assistance.

Many people are in urgent need of food and water.

Help is urgently needed.

I don't understand this sudden urgency.

Urgent (adj) /ˈɝː.dʒənt/

Urgently (adverb)

Urgency (noun)

Urgent - needing attention very soon, especially before anything else, because important. (B1)


Slopes of deep red grass...

The roof is at a slope (= at an angle to a horizontal surface) of 30°.

A slope /sloʊp/​

A slope - a surface that lies at an angle to the horizontal so that some points on it are higher than others; (part of) the side of a hill or mountain. (B2)


One of the most dazzling cities ever built.


Dazzling (adj) /ˈdæz.l.ɪŋ/

Dazzling - A dazzling light is so bright that you cannot see for a short time after looking at it, extremely attractive or exciting. (C2)




You've brought me to the slums?

She found herself in a slummy back street.


A slum /slʌm/

Slummy (adj)

A slum - a very poor and crowded area, especially of a city.


Ты привёл меня в трущобы?


Looked like carjackers to me.

Last night he was shot and killed during an attempt to carjack his vehicle (/ˈviː.ə.kəl/).

Carjacking /ˈkɑːrˌdʒæk.ɪŋ/


Carjacking - the crime of stealing a car while someone is in it by using physical force or threats.


They've never known the ground beneath their paws.

A paw /pɑː/​ (us) /pɔː/ ​(uk)

Paws [pˈɔːz]

A paw - the foot of an animal that has claws or nails, such as a cat, dog, or bear. (B2)


Started out as newlyweds.

A newlywed (usually plural)


A newlywed - someone who has recently married.


The sun is blazing high over the New Atlantic, the perfect setting for the daily contemplation

A healthy breakfast combined with time for contemplation; sounds like Carl Jung had a near-perfect morning routine.

Her mood was calm and contemplative.



Contemplative (adj)

Contemplatively (adverb)

Contemplation - serious and quiet thought for a period of time.


Соцерцания (размышления)


Last time we met, you were breeding humans for experimentation.

The blackbird, like most birds, breeds in the spring.

To breed (bred, bred)

/briːd/ ​[brˈed]​

To breed - 1. To keep animals for the purpose of producing young animals in a controlled way.

2. (of animals) to have sex and produce young animals. (B2)


Hame grabs the Doctor's wrist.


A wrist /rɪst/

A wrist - the part of the body between the hand and the arm. (B2)


You see all those old newsreels all in black and white...

A newsreel /ˈnuːz.riːl/

A newsreel - a short film that consists of news reports, usually one that was made in the past for showing in a cinema.



If that's your attitude, I think that you should tell them yourself.

An attitude /ˈæt̬.ə.tuːd/

An attitude - a feeling or opinion about something or someone, or a way of behaving that is caused by this. (B1)




Behold your masters.

To behold (beheld, beheld) (old)

/bɪˈhoʊld/  [bɪhˈeld]

To behold - to see or look at someone or something.

Узрите своих хозяев.


A little trip down the sewers.

A sewer /ˈsuː.ɚ/

A sewer /ˈsuː.ɚ/ - a large pipe, usually underground, that is used for carrying waste water and human waste away from buildings to a place where they can be safely got rid of.



The plants and animals indigenous to Australia are notably different from those indigenous to the United States.

Indigenous (adj) 


Indigenous - naturally existing in a place or country rather than arriving from another place.




- It could be a burglar.

- A burglar who rings the doorbell?

A burglar /ˈbɝː.ɡlɚ/

A burglar - a person who illegally enters buildings and steals things. (B2)




No mess, no fuss, they just zap you into the past and let you live to death.

A fuss /fʌs/​

To zap (informal) (zapped)


A fuss - a show of anger, worry, or excitement that is unnecessary or greater than the situation deserves; attention given to small matters that are not important. (C1)

To zap - to get rid of or kill something or someone, especially intentionally.

Без спешки и суеты они спихивают тебя в прошлое и позволяют дожить там свой век.


People assume that time is a strict progression of cause to effect, but actually, from a non-linear, non-subjective viewpoint, it's more like a big ball of wibbly-wobbly, timey-wimey stuff.

To assume /əˈsuːm/

Strict (adj) /strɪkt/

To assume - to accept something to be true without question or proof. (B2)

Strict - 1. Strongly limiting someone's freedom to behave as they wish, or likely to severely punish someone if they do not obey 2. Exactly correct. (B1)

Люди полагают, что время, строго последовательно, но фактически оно нелинейно, не с субъективной точки зрения, оно больше походит на большой шар очень шаткая-маткая штука-дрюка.


DOCTOR [on screen]: I've got a copy of the finished transcript. It's on my autocue.

An autocue /ˈɑː.t̬oʊ.kjuː/​

(= a teleprompter) [tˈelɪprɒmptə]

An autocue - a brand name for an electronic device used by people speaking on a television programme that shows the words they have to say while they look directly at the television camera.




They've survived this long as they have the most perfect defence system ever evolved.

The company has evolved over the years into a multi-million dollar organization.

To evolve /ɪˈvɑːlv/​

To evolve - to develop gradually, or to cause something or someone to develop gradually. (C1)


Они выживали так долго, что у них развились самые совершенные навыки защиты.


Their greatest asset is their greatest curse.

An asset /ˈæ​

An asset - a useful or valuable quality, skill, or person. (C1)


Их совершенное достояние, их проклятие.


LARRY: I'll rewind him.

SALLY: What good would that do? You're not looking at the statue.

To rewind (rewound, rewound)



To rewind - to make a recording go back towards the beginning.




LARRY: I don't think we need to. He tricked them, The Doctor tricked them. They're looking at each other. They're never going to move again.

To trick /trɪk/

To trick - to deceive someone, often as a part of a plan. (B1)


DOCTOR: We're accelerating into the future. The year one billion. Five billion. Five trillion. Fifty trillion? What? The year one hundred trillion? That's impossible.


To accelerate /əkˈsel.ɚ.eɪt/

To accelerate - to go faster. (C2) Opposite - decelerate



CHANTHO: Chan should I alert the guards tho?

YANA: No, no, we can't spare them. Poor beggar's on his own. One more lost soul dreaming of Utopia.

To spare /speər/

A beggar /ˈbeɡ.ɚ/

To spare - to prevent someone from having to experience something unpleasant.

A beggar - a poor person who lives by asking others for money or food




DOCTOR: Must have been clinging to the outside of the Tardis all the way through the vortex. Well, that's very him.

To cling (clung, clung)

/klɪŋ/  [klˈʌŋ]

To cling - to stick onto or hold something or someone tightly, or to refuse to stop holding it, him, or her. (C2)



JACK: The police box kind of gives it away. I've been following you for a long time. You abandoned me.

To abandon /əˈbæn.dən/

To abandon - to leave a place, thing, or person, usually for ever. (B2)

Бросил, покинул



Jack: So there I was, stranded in the year 200100, ankle deep in Dalek dust, and he goes off without me, but I had this.

An ankle /ˈæŋ.kəl/

An ankle - the joint (= place where two bones are connected) between the foot and the leg, or the thin part of the leg just above the foot. (B1)


Застрял в 200100 году. По щиколотку в пыли от далеков


DOCTOR: A city or a hive, or a nest, or a conglomeration. Like it was grown. But look, there. That's like pathways, roads?

A hive /haɪv/​

A hive - a structure where bees live.



MARTHA: It's like a refugee camp.

JACK: Stinking. Oh, sorry. No offence. Not you.

A refugee (refuees)  


Stinking (informal)

A refugee - a person who has escaped from their own country for political, religious, or economic reasons or because of a war.

Stinking - having a very unpleasant smell.


Лагерь для беженцев



DOCTOR: End of the universe and here you are. Indomitable! That's the word. Indomitable!

Indomitable /ɪnˈdɑː.mə.t̬ə.bəl/


Indomitable - used to say that someone is strong, brave, determined, and difficult to defeat or frighten.



MARTHA: Oh, my God. You've got a hand? A hand in a jar. A hand in a jar in your bag.

A jar /dʒɑːr/

A jar - a glass or clay container with a wide opening at the top and sometimes a fitted lid, usually used for storing food.



DOCTOR: Time Lord, last of. Heard of them? Legend or anything? Not even a myth? Blimey, end of the universe is a bit humbling.

He was humbled by the child's generosity.

Humbling (adj)

To humble /ˈhʌm.bəl/

To humble - to make someone understand that they are not as important or special as they thought.




DOCTOR: Bit of a hermit.

Yama: A hermit with friends?

DOCTOR: Hermits United. We meet up every ten years and swap stories about caves. It's good fun, for a hermit. So, er, Utopia?

A hermit  /ˈhɝː.mɪt/

To swap /swɑːp/​

A hermit /ˈhɝː.mɪt/ - a person who lives alone and apart from the rest of society, especially for religious reasons.

To swap - to give something and be given something else instead. (C1) Synonym - exchange





MARTHA: I've only just met him. The Doctor sort of travels through time and space and picks people up. God, I make us sound like stray dogs. Maybe we are.

"Who owns that cat?" "I don't know. I think it must be a stray."

A stray /streɪ/​


A stray - a pet that no longer has a home or cannot find its home.


Doctor: Stand by. Two minutes to ignition.

Atillo: Ready to launch.

Ignition /ɪɡˈnɪʃ.ən/

Launch /lɑːntʃ/​

Ignition - the electrical system in an engine that causes the fuel to burn or explode in order to start the engine.

Launch - an event to celebrate or introduce something new; an occasion when a ship is put into water, or a spacecraft is sent into space, for the first time. (C1)

Приготовьтесь. Две минуты до зажигания. Готов к запуску.


Computer: Countdown commencing.

We will commence building work in August of next year.

To commence /kəˈmens/

To commence - to begin something.


Jenny: Husband of Mine, follow the maid's scent. Go to the west. Find out what she was keeping secret.

A maid /meɪd/

A maid - a woman who works as a servant in a hotel or in someone's home.



ROCASTLE: What in thunder's name is this? Before I devise an excellent and endless series of punishments for each and every one of you, could someone explain very simply and immediately exactly what is going on?

The company has also devised a computer program that enables people to design their own homes.


To devise /dɪˈvaɪz/

To devise - to invent a plan, system, object, etc., usually using your intelligence or imagination. (C2)


Разработать, придумать


ROCASTLE: Murder on our own soil?

JOAN: I saw it. Yes.

Soil /sɔɪl/

Soil - the material on the surface of the ground in which plants grow; literary a country.



Joan: Baines threatened Mister Smith, sir. Said he'd follow him. We don't know why.

To threaten /ˈθret.ən/

To threaten - to tell someone that you will kill or hurt them or cause problems if they do not do what you want. (B2)

To threaten somebody




JOAN: Well that certainly is nonsense. Women might train to be doctors, but hardly a skivvy and hardly one of your color.

A skivvy /ˈskɪv.i/

A skivvy /ˈskɪv.i/ - a person, in the past a female servant, who does the dirty and unpleasant jobs in a house, such as cleaning.



The army of scarecrows moves forward.

A scarecrow /ˈsker.kroʊ/

A scarecrow - a model of a person dressed in old clothes and put in a field of growing crops to frighten birds away.


Пугало огородное


(He walks over to the scarecrows.)

ROCASTLE: They're straw. Like he said, straw.

HUTCHINSON: The no one's dead, sir? We killed no one?

Straw /strɑː/​

Straw - the dried, yellow stems of crops such as wheat, used as food for animals or as a layer on the ground for animals to lie on, and for making traditional objects. (C1)




But learning vocab is an arduous process, with lots of study and memorization.

Arduous (adj) /ˈɑːr.dʒu.əs/



Arduous /ˈɑːr.dʒu.əs/ - difficult, needing a lot of effort and energy.


Nowadays, online smart flashcards like you can access through the Brainscape app make this process even more efficient.

Nowadays /ˈnaʊ.ə.deɪz/

Efficient  /ɪˈfɪʃ.ənt/


Nowadays - at the present time, in comparison to the past. (B1)

Efficient /ɪˈfɪʃ.ənt/ - working or operating quickly and effectively in an organized way.


В наши дни



By seeing words in context on the page, you will inherently understand the new meaning of some vocab words

Inherently (adverb)

Inherent (adj) /ɪnˈhɪr.ənt/

Inherent - existing as a natural or basic part of something. (C2)



По своей сути


Maybe you love to cook and you will buy a recipe book in your new language to make something delicious.

A recipe (recipes) /ˈres.ə.pi/

A recipe - a set of instructions telling you how to prepare and cook food, including a list of what food is needed for this.


These seven simple strategies are designed to help you acquire new vocab faster.

To acquire /əˈkwaɪɚ/

To acquire - to get something. (B2)



Too many people end up leaving their college without having ever discovered that great study spot that hides up a random staircase in the library, or that ladder on the back of the gym that leads to the best spot to watch sunsets on campus.

A ladder /ˈlæd.ɚ/

A ladder - a piece of equipment used for climbing up and down, that consists of two vertical bars or pieces of rope joined to each other by a set of horizontal steps; a long, vertical hole in a pair of tights or a stocking. (B1)


You never know what will grab your interest and become a lifelong dedication.

Dedication /ˌded.əˈkeɪ.ʃən/

Dedication - the willingness to give a lot of time and energy to something because it is important.




Balancing classes with all the other new things in college can be tough.

Tough (adj)  /tʌf/



Tough - strong; difficult to do or to deal with; likely to be violent or to contain violence; not kind or pleasant. (B2)


Жёсткий, трудный, жестокий.


The average college's student spends more than $600 per year on textbooks — most of which end up being tossed or sent to the thrift store

To toss  /tɑːs/

Thrift store /ˈθrɪft ˌstɔːr/

To toss - to throw something carelessly. (C2)

Thrift store - a shop that sells used things such as clothes, books, and furniture, typically in order to raise money for a charity.


Peruse these listings occasionally, and explore the options that interest you.

He opened a newspaper and began to peruse the personal ads.

To peruse /pəˈruːz/ (formal)

To peruse - to read through something, especially in order to find the part you are interested in.


Внимательно прочитать, проштудировать


They feed primarily on mice and rodents.

A rodent /ˈroʊ.dənt/​

A rodent - any of various small mammals with large, sharp front teeth, such as mice and rats.




Life is sooooooo easy when we are always full of energy, extremely persuasive, able to focus.

Persuasive (adj) /pɚˈsweɪ.sɪv/



Persuasive - making you want to do or believe a particular thing.




The ability to convert ingested fuel to usable energy is what differentiates a living organism from a dead one.

The chemicals can be poisonous if ingested.

To ingest /ɪnˈdʒest/

To ingest - to eat or drink something.




Organic molecules can be large, and they comprise the structural components of living organisms: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids.


To comprise /kəmˈpraɪz/​ (formal)

To comprise - to have as parts or members, or to be those parts or members.


Включать, состоять из


You may feel a twinge.

Alice felt a twinge of guilt watching them like this.


A twinge /twɪndʒ/

A twinge - a sudden short feeling of physical or mental pain.


Dizziness can be a sign of early onset diabetes.


Dizziness (noun)  /ˈdɪz.i.nəs/

An onset /ˈɑːn.set/​

Dizziness - a temporary (/ˈtem.pə.rer.i/) feeling that your sense of balance is not good and that you may fall down.

An onset - the moment at which something unpleasant begins.



Ранняя стадия


Catalogue (/ˈkæt̬.əl.ɑːɡ/)  all suspects!


A suspect /səˈspekt/


A suspect - a person believed to have committed a crime or done something wrong, or something believed to have caused something bad. (B2)




If they declare the hospital guilty of harbouring a fugitive, they'll execute it.

To harbour (=harbor) /ˈhɑːr.bɚ/​

A fugitive /ˈfjuː.dʒə.t̬ɪv/​

To harbour - to protect someone or something bad, especially by hiding that person or thing when the police are looking for him, her, or it.

A fugitive - a person who is running away or hiding from the police or a dangerous situation.


Предоставлять убежище



Good learners are resourceful, persistent, and inquisitive


Resourceful (adj)  /rɪˈsɔːr.sfəl/

Persistent (adj) /pɚˈsɪs.tənt/

Inquisitive (adj) /ɪnˈkwɪz.ə.t̬ɪv/

Resourceful - skilled at solving problems and making decisions on your own. (C2)

Persistent - lasting for a long time or difficult to get rid of; Someone who is persistent continues doing something or tries to do something in a determined but often unreasonable way. (C2)

Inquisitive - wanting to discover as much as you can about things, sometimes in a way that annoys people.


Стойкий, настойчивый



Gauge candidates’ persistence at difficult tasks.

To gauge /ɡeɪdʒ/

To gauge /ɡeɪdʒ/ - to calculate an amount, especially by using a measuring device (to measure); to make a judgment about something, usually people's feelings (to judge)


LSD. It’s been about 3 years since I ‘quit’ (though I still dose about twice a year), and these are the effects that still seem to linger.

To linger /ˈlɪŋɡər/​

To linger - to take a long time to leave or disappear. (C2)


Drainage on campus sucks, so when it rains a lot (always), there are enormous (read: pond-size) puddles everywhere

Drainage /ˈdreɪnɪdʒ/​

A pond /pɒnd/ ​

A puddle /ˈpʌdl/ ​

Drainage /ˈdreɪ.nɪdʒ/ - the system of water or waste liquids flowing away from somewhere into the ground or down pipes.

A pond /pɑːnd/ - an area of water smaller than a lake, often artificially made. (B2)

A puddle - a small pool of liquid on the ground, especially from rain.






But Vancouver is also pretty sprawling and you'll likely live in different neighbourhoods than your friends, which can make meeting up more difficult.

Sprawling (adj)

To sprawl /sprɔːl/​ 

Sprawling - existing or reaching over a large area.

To sprawl - 1. (Person) To sit or lie in a relaxed, untidy position with your arms and legs stretched out;

2. (Buildings) To cover a large area, often in a way which is not tidy or not planned.




MARTHA: It was always going to end, though! The Doctor said the Family's got a limited lifespan, and that's why they need to consume a Time Lord. Otherwise, three months and they die. Like mayflies, he said.

A lifespan /ˈlaɪfspæn/ ​

A mayfly /ˈmeɪ.flaɪ/​

A lifespan - the length of time for which a person, animal, or thing exists. (C2)

A mayfly - an insect that lives near water and only lives for a very short time as an adult.

Продолжительность жизни/срок службы



JOAN: Then it all ends in destruction. I never read to the end, but those creatures would live forever to breed and conquer, for war across the stars for every child.

To breed (bred, bred) /briːd/ ​ [brˈed]​

To conquer /ˈkɑːŋ.kɚ/​

To breed - to keep animals for the purpose of producing young animals in a controlled way; (of animals) to have sex and produce young animals. (B2)

To conquer - to take control or possession of foreign land, or a group of people, by force; to deal with or successfully fight against a problem or an unreasonable fear. (C1)




BAINES: We'll blast them into dust, then fuse the dust into glass, then shatter them all over again.

To blast /blæst/​

To fuse /fjuːz/​

To shatter /ˈʃæt̬.ɚ/​

To blast - to explode or destroy something or someone with explosives, or to break through or hit something with a similar, very strong force.

To fuse - to join or become combined; to (cause to) melt (together) especially at a high temperature.

To shatter - to (cause something to) break suddenly into very small pieces.


DOCTOR: Oh, I think the explanation might be you've been fooled by a simple olfactory misdirection. Little bit like ventriloquism of the nose.

Olfactory (adj.)  /ɑːlˈfæk.ter.i/​

A misdirection

To misdirect /ˌmɪs.daɪˈrekt//ˌmɪs.dɪˈrekt/​

A ventriloquism /venˈtrɪl.ə.kwɪ.zəm/​

Olfactory - connected with the ability to smell.

To misdirect - to send something to the wrong place or aim something in the wrong direction; to use something in a way that is not suitable or right.

A ventriloquism - the ability to speak without moving your lips so that your voice seems to be coming from someone or something else, usually as a way of entertaining people.


Baines [OC]: He wrapped my father in unbreakable chains, forged in the heart of a dwarf star. He tricked my mother into the event horizon of a collapsing galaxy to be imprisoned there forever.

To wrap /ræp/​

To forge /fɔːrdʒ/​

Dwarf (Pl.: dwarfs or dwarves) /dwɔːrf/ ​

To wrap - to cover or surround something with paper, cloth, or other material; to cover someone with a piece of material in order to protect them. (B1/2)

To forge - to make or produce something, especially with some difficulty.

Он заковал моего отца в нерушимые цепи, выкованные в сердце карликовой звезды.


Hope you're not planning to see patients in your sweat suit.

Sweat suit (=sweatsuit) /swet/ /suːt/

Sweat suit - Clothes worn for exercising.


Спортивный костюм


In Nablus, many of the historic old town buildings, including a mosque, were destroyed.

A mosque /mɑːsk/​

A mosque - a building for Islamic religious activities and worship. (A2)



Failures do what is tension relieving, while winners do what is goal achieving.

Tension /ˈten.ʃən/​

Tension (a noun) - a feeling of nervousness before an important or difficult event. (B2)



Small goals are not overbearing. Little to no pressure. They can be easily reached.

Overbearing (adj) /ˌoʊ.vɚˈber.ɪŋ​


Overbearing - too confident and too determined to tell other people what to do, in a way that is unpleasant.



Once you've reached your goal by the deadline, you can start a new one, and aim a little higher. And make even more progress.

[ + to infinitive ] I aim to be a millionaire by the time I'm 35.

We are aiming for (= planning to achieve) a 50 percent share of the German market.

To aim /eɪm/

To aim - to intend. (B1)




This month I implemented 3 new methods that really ramped up my Italian progress.

To implement /ˈɪm.plə.ment/​

To ramp smth up /ræmp/​

To implement - to start using a plan or system. (B2)

To ramp smth up - to increase the speed, power, or cost of something.




FOSTER: Oh, Penny, if cynicism burnt up calories, we'd all be as thin as rakes.

Rake (sing) - rakes (plural) /reɪk/​

A rake - a garden tool with a long handle and long, pointed metal parts sticking out in a row at the bottom, used for making the earth level or for collecting leaves, etc.

Грабли (ед.ч) - грабли (мн.ч)


CRAIG: The box comes with 21 days worth of pills, a full information pack, and our special free gift, an Adipose Industries pendant.

A pendant /ˈpen.dənt/​

A pendant - a piece of jewellery worn around the neck, consisting of a long chain with an object hanging from it, or the object itself.



Donna collects the printouts and leaves. The Doctor walks behind her to the printer and looks for his copies.

A printout /ˈprɪnt.aʊt/

A printout - text produced by a computer printer.




Donna takes the Adipose pendant out and examines it, then she twists it absentmindedly and Stacy's stomach growls.

To twist /twɪst/​

Absentmindedly/Absent-mindedly (adverb)


Absent-minded (adj.)


To growl /ɡraʊl/​

To twist - to turn something using your hand. (C2)

Absent-minded - often forgetting things.

To growl - If a dog or similar animal growls, it makes a deep, angry noise in its throat.

Поворачивать, крутить


Рычать, урчать


What problem did I encounter today?

To encounter /ɪnˈkaʊn.t̬ɚ/​

To encounter - to experience something, especially something unpleasant.

Сталкиваться с, испытывать


Foster: The Adipose has been witnessed.

To witness /ˈwɪt.nəs/​

To witness - to see something happen, especially an accident or crime. (B2)

Стать свидетелем


[Stacy's bathroom] (Another creature pops out of Stacy's body, then gurgles and waves at her.)

STACY: What are you? What are you?

To gurgle  /ˈɡɝː.ɡəl/​

To wave at someone /weɪv/​

To gurgle - (of babies) to make a happy sound with the back of the throat; (of water, especially small streams) to flow quickly while making a low, pleasant sound.

To wave at someone - to raise your hand and move it from side to side as a way of greeting someone, telling someone to do something, or adding emphasis to an expression.


Махать рукой


Protein is the most satiating.


To satiate /ˈseɪ.ʃi.eɪt/ ​

To satiate - to completely satisfy yourself or a need, especially with food or pleasure, so that you could not have any more.



Bye bye morning slump, hello vivacity!

A slump /slʌmp/​

Vivacity (noun) /vɪˈvæs.ə.t̬i/​

Vivacious (adj) /vɪˈveɪ.ʃəs/​

A slump - a fall in the price, value, sales, etc. of something.

Vivacious - A vivacious person, especially a woman or girl, is attractively energetic and enthusiastic. (C2)


A slump - упадок

Vivacity - бодрость


Donna: Permission to board ship, sir?

Wilf: Permission granted. Was she nagging you?

[ + obj + to infinitive ] My mum's always nagging me to get my hair cut. I'm always nagging him about his diet.

To nag someone /næɡ/ 

To nag - to criticize or complain often in an annoying way

(Пилить, ворчать)


DOCTOR: Oh, yes, I've still got your sonic pen. Nice. I like it. Sleek. It's kind of sleek.

DONNA: Oh, it's definitely sleek.

Sleek (adj) /sliːk/​

Sleekly  /ˈsliː.kli/​

Sleekness /ˈsliːk.nəs/​

Sleek - (especially of hair, clothes, or shapes) smooth, shiny, and lying close to the body, and therefore looking well cared for; not untidy and with no parts sticking out.

Безупречный, обтекаемый, элегантный, гладкий


FOSTER: I've been employed by the Adiposian First Family to foster a new generation after their breeding planet was lost.

To foster /ˈfɑː.stɚ/​

To foster - 1. to take care of a child, usually for a limited time, without being the child's legal parent. 2. to encourage the development or growth of ideas or feelings.

(2. Способствовать)


SUZETTE: I swear, that Adipose treatment is fabulous. Just look at my chin.

A chin /tʃɪn/

A chin - the part of a person's face below their mouth. (B1)



CAECILIUS: The moment of revelation.

[ + that ] His wife divorced him after the revelation that he was having an affair.

Shocking revelations about their private life appeared in the papers.

This book came as a complete revelation to me.

Revelation /ˌrev.əˈleɪ.ʃən/​

Revelation - the act of making something known that was secret, or a fact that is made known; to be an extremely pleasant surprise. (C2)



DOCTOR: Oh, ha. You must excuse my friend, she's from Barcelona. No, but this is an age of superstition. Of official superstition. The Augur is paid by the city to tell the future. The wind will blow from the west? That's the equivalent of ten o'clock news.

A superstition /ˌsuː.pɚˈstɪʃ.ən/​

A superstition - belief that is not based on human reason or scientific knowledge, but is connected with old ideas about magic, etc.

Суеверие, предрассудок, примета


This process is costly, time-consuming, noisy, and can be environmentally hazardous.

Hazardous (adj.) /ˈhæz.ɚ.dəs/​

Hazardous - dangerous. (C1)

Hazardous substances are classified based only on health effects (whether they are immediate or long term), while dangerous goods are classified according to their immediate physical or chemical effects, such as fire, explosion, corrosion and poisoning, affecting property, the environment or people.


Loop and Hyperloop are similar, with the major difference being that Hyperloop draws a vacuum inside the tube to eliminate air friction.

To eliminate /iˈlɪm.ə.neɪt/​

Friction /ˈfrɪk.ʃən/​

Frictional /ˈfrɪk.ʃən.əl/​

To eliminate - to remove or take away someone or something; (slang) to murder someone. (C1)

Friction - the force that makes it difficult for one object to slide along the surface of another or to move through a liquid or gas.



LUCIUS: The prophecies of women are limited and dull. Only the menfolk have the capacity for true perception.

Dull (adj) /dʌl/​

Dull - not interesting or exciting in any way. (B1) Synonym - boring.


LUCIUS: The female soothsayer is inclined to invent all sorts of vagaries

The vagaries of the English weather

To invent  /ɪnˈvent/​

Vagaries /ˈveɪ.ɡɚ.iz/​

To invent - to design or create something that has never existed before; to think of a story or explanation in order to deceive someone. (B1/2)

Vagaries /ˈveɪɡəriz/ - sudden changes that are not expected or known about before they happen.

Изобретать, придумывать.

Капризы, причуды


DONNA: What's wrong with her arm? METELLA: An irritation of the skin. She never complains, bless her. We bathe it in olive oil every night.

The smoke irritated her eyes.

An irritation /ˌɪr.əˈteɪ.ʃən/​

To irritate /ˈɪr.ə.teɪt/​

To irritate - to annoy someone; to make a part of your body hurt.




You will kneel!

To kneel /niːl/

(knelt or kneeled, knelt or kneeled) 


[nˈelt] [nˈiːld]

To kneel - to go down into or stay in a position where one or both of your knees are on the ground. (B2)

Преклонить колено


Baines: Headmaster, sir. Good evening, sir. Come to give me a caning, sir? Would you like that, sir?


A cane /keɪn/

Caning - hitting children at school with a cane.

A cane - a long stick used by people to help them walk.

Избиение палками Трость


The three witches stand around their cauldron.

A cauldron /ˈkɑːl.drən/​

A cauldron - a large, round metal pot that is used for cooking over a fire.



They use the liquid in the cauldron to scry, and see the Doctor with Street.

To scry /skraɪ/

To scry - to see what will happen in the future, especially by looking into an object such as a mirror or glass ball.



DOCTOR: Pass me that torch.

A torch /tɔːrtʃ/


A torch - a thick stick with material that burns tied to the top of it, used to give light; a small light that is held in the hand and usually gets its power from batteries. (B2)

Факел, фонарь


DOCTOR: Well, plenty of marble merchants in this town.

A merchant /ˈmɝː.tʃənt/​

A merchant - a person whose job is to buy and sell products in large amounts, especially by trading with other countries.

Торговец, купец, коммерсант


DONNA: You're not supposed to laugh. Thanks for that. What do you think? The Goddess Venus. EVELINA: Oh, that's *sacrilege*. It would be a *sacrilege* to put a neon sign on that beautiful old building. A sacrilege

A sacrilege /ˈsæk.rə.lɪdʒ/ - (an act of) treating something holy or important without respect. Кощунство, богохульство


HIGH PRIESTESS [OC]: The false prophet must die. *Sacrifice* her. Many women *sacrifice* interesting careers for their families. To sacrifice

To sacrifice - to give up something that is valuable to you in order to help another person; to kill an animal or a person and offer them to a god or gods. (C1) Приносить в жертву


Consist, comprise and compose are all verbs used to describe what something is ‘made of’. We don’t use them in continuous forms. Consist Their diet only consisted of fruit and seeds. The whole group consists of students. We only use the active form of consist of: Their flat consists of two bedrooms, a kitchen and a bathroom. NOT: (Their flat is consisted of two bedrooms…) Comprise Comprise is more formal than consist: The USA comprises 50 states. We can also use it in the passive voice in the form ‘be comprised of’: The course is comprised of ten lectures and five seminars on the theory of economics and banking. Comprise, but not compose, can be used with the parts that make up something as the subject: Oil and coal comprise 70% of the nation’s exports. Compose of is even more formal than consist of and comprise. Compose of is only used in the passive voice: Muscle is composed of different types of protein.



LUCIUS: *Enlighten* me. To enlighten

To enlighten - to provide someone with information and understanding, or to explain the true facts about something to someone. Просвещать


LUCIUS: I think you've *babbled* enough. To babble

To babble - to talk or say something in a quick, confused, excited, or silly way.


LUCIUS: You *insult* the gods. To insult

To insult - to say or do something to someone that is rude or offensive. (B2)


LUCIUS: My carvings! The work is unbroken. Oh, Lord of the Mountain, I *beseech* you. To beseech

To beseech - to ask for something in a way that shows you need it very much. Synonym - beg


SPURRINA: The false prophet will *surrender* both her blood and her breath. To surrender

To surrender - to stop fighting and admit defeat (C2); to give something that is yours to someone else because you have been forced to do so or because it is necessary to do so. Сдаваться, подчиняться.


SPURRINA: High *Priestess*, the stranger would *defile* us. A priestess To defile

A priestess - a woman who performs religious duties in some religions that are not Christian. To defile - to spoil something or someone so that that thing or person is less beautiful or pure. Жрица Осквернять


HIGH PRIESTESS: And the breath of a Pyrovile will *incinerate* you, Doctor. To incinerate Incineration

To incinerate - to burn something completely.


HIGH PRIESTESS: The stranger would threaten our great *endeavor*. The time has come. The prophecy must *advance*. An endeavor To advance

An endeavor - an effort or attempt to do something. To advance - to go or move something forward, or to develop or improve something.


DOCTOR: Because that's how I see the universe. Every waking second, I can see what is, what was, what could be, what must not. That's the *burden* of a Time Lord, Donna. And I'm the only one left. A burden

A burden - something difficult or unpleasant that you have to deal with or worry about; a heavy load that you carry. (C1) Бремя


DOCTOR: Push this *lever* and it's over. Twenty thousand people. A lever

A lever - a bar or handle that moves around a fixed point, so that one end of it can be pushed or pulled in order to control the operation of a machine or move a heavy or stiff object. Рычаг


DOCTOR: Trouble. Come on. The Ood are harmless. They're completely *benign*. Except, the last time I met them, there was this force, like a stronger mind, powerful enough to take them over. Benign (adj) /bɪˈnaɪn/ Benignly (adverb)

Benign - pleasant and kind. No Russian analogue


KESS: Mister Halpen? This is a bit more than red eye, sir. This is something new. It's *rabid*, sir. Rabid (adj) /ˈræb.ɪd/ Rabidly (adverb) Rabies /ˈreɪ.biːz/

Rabies - a serious disease of the nervous system that can cause death. Rabies can be passed on to humans by other animals. Rabid - suffering from rabies.


DOCTOR: I've had enough of the *schmoozing*. Do you fancy going off the *beaten* track? To schmooze (informal) Beaten (adj)

To schmooze - to talk informally with someone, especially in a way that is not sincere or to win some advantage for yourself. No Russian analogue Beaten - [ before noun ] A beaten path or track is one that people walk along regularly so that the ground has become hard and the path is clear.


A: Jasmine and I have a great *elationship*, dude. B: Um, she lives in Vietnam, dude. An elationship

An elationship - This refers to a couple (friends, lovers, whatever) that know each other only via online correspondence (e-mail, IM chats, video rooms, etc).


RYDER: There's only one thing I haven't checked, sir. Warehouse Fifteen. A warehouse UK ​/ˈweə.haʊs/ US /ˈwer.haʊs/

A warehouse - a large building for storing things before they are sold, used, or sent out to shops. (C2) Склад


HALPEN: God, the stench of it. COMPUTER: Warehouse Fifteen door open. A stench

A stench - a strong, unpleasant smell.


RYDER: Nothing. The barrier's intact. No abnormal signal. Same as it's been for two hundred years. Intact (adj) /ɪnˈtækt/

Intact - complete and in the original state, not damaged. Нетронутый, невредимый


DOCTOR: It's the song of captivity. Captivity (noun) /kæpˈtɪv.ə.t̬i/

Captivity - the situation in which a person or animal is kept somewhere and is not allowed to leave. Неволя, плен.


Donna: Take it away. Doctor: Sure? Donna: I can't bear it. DOCTOR: Now, don't start fighting. Martha, Donna. Donna, Martha. Please don't fight. Can't bear fighting To bear (bore, borne/born) (Borne - about tolerating, born - about giving birth) UK ​ /beər/ US ​ /ber/

To bear - to accept, tolerate, or endure something, especially something unpleasant. Выносить


She *strokes* his hair. To stroke (stroked)

To stroke - to move a hand, another part of the body, or an object gently over something or someone, usually repeatedly and for pleasure. (B2)


HALPEN: The Ood were nothing without us, just animals *roaming* around on the ice. To roam (roamed) verb [ I + adv/prep, T ] UK /rəʊm/ US /roʊm

To roam - to move about or travel, especially without a clear idea of what you are going to do. Бродить


DOCTOR: Oh, yes! *Stifled* for two hundred years, but not any more. The circle is broken. The Ood can sing. To stifle (stifled) /ˈstaɪ.fəl/

To stifle - 1. to (cause to) be unable to breathe because you have no air. 2. to prevent something from happening, being expressed, or continuing. Душить, сдерживать


HARRIS: Can you hear me? Can you understand me? Look at its neck. Looks like an *umbilical cord*. An umbilical cord UK ​ /ʌmˈbɪl.ɪ.kəl ˌkɔːd/ US ​ /ʌmˈbɪl.ɪ.kəl ˌkɔːrd/

An umbilical cord - the long, tube-like structure that connects a baby that has not yet been born to its mother's placenta (= the organ that provides it with food and oxygen). Пуповина


The unconscious *imagery* will repeat itself infinitely, leading Jacob into his own depths. An imagery /ˈɪm.ə.dʒər.i/

An imagery - the use of words or pictures in books, films, paintings, etc. to describe ideas or situations. Образ


DOCTOR: Oh, don't salute. MACE: But it's an honour, sir. I've read all the files on you. Technically speaking, you're still on staff. You never *resigned.* He *resigned from* the company in order to take a more challenging job. She *resigned as* director. She resigned the directorship. To resign /rɪˈzaɪn/

To resign - to give up a job or position by telling your employer that you are leaving. (B2) Уводиться, подать в отставку


(Elle Woods): The people here are so *vile*. Vile (adj) informal

Vile - unpleasant, immoral, and unacceptable.

Подлый, гнусный


The exercise on the following Slides can help you Create & *refine* Your life purpose.

Engineers spent many months *refining* the software.

to refine /rɪˈfaɪn/

To refine /rɪˈfaɪn/ (t) - to make something pure or improve something, especially by removing unwanted material; 

to improve an idea, method, system, etc. by making small changes. (C2)




I feel I've found/missed my true vocation.

A vocation /voʊˈkeɪ.ʃən/

A vocation - a strong feeling that you are right for a particular type of work, or a job that gives you this feeling.




He's a former junkie, A former armed robber, and a former car thief.


Former President Bill Clinton


Former (adj) /ˈfɔːmər/  [ always before noun ]

Former - happening, existing, or true in the past but not now. (B1)




He was carrying my bags.

The plane was carrying 30 passengers.


Is it legal to carry a handgun?


Mosquitoes carry malaria and other infectious diseases.


All cigarette advertising must carry a government health warning.


To carry (carried)

To carry -  to move someone or something from one place to another; 

to have something with you in a pocket, bag, hands; 

to have a disease that you might give to someone else. 



Нести, переносить, содержать


He's got a certain charm.

[ + (that) ] I feel absolutely certain that you're doing the right thing.

[ + question word ] Nobody was certain how the accident had happened.

[ + to do sth ] She is certain to do well  uk  in the exams/ us on the exams.

He was quite certain about/of the thief's identity.

The museum is only open at certain times of the day.

We don't know for certain whether she's coming.


Certain (adj) /ˈsɜːtən/ 

Certainly (adverb) /ˈsɜːtənli/

Certain - used before a noun to mean existing, but difficult to describe the exact quality or amount;

completely sure of something;

used to refer to a particular person or thing without naming or describing them exactly.

For certain - to know something without a doubt.



Несомненный, убежденный

Некоторый, определенный




Certainly - without a doubt. 




She died of natural causes.

The ice was the cause of the driver losing control of his car.

He's never given me any cause for concern.

The money will all go to a good cause.


A cause /kɔːz/

A cause - someone or something that makes something happen;

a reason to feel something or to behave in a particular way;

a principle or aim that a group of people support or fight for.


Причина, повод


Cause vs. Reason

Reason: It gives an explanation. WHY?

Cause: It gives a result. HOW?


The most likely explanation.

[ + to do sth ] Do remind me because I'm likely to forget.

[ + (that) ] It's likely that he'll say no.


Likely (adj) /ˈlaɪkli/

Likely - probably true; expected.


→ Opposite unlikely


Вероятно, правдоподобно


An advertising/election campaign.


A bombing campaign.


A campaign /kæmˈpeɪn/​

A campaign - a series of organized activities or events intended to achieve a result; a series of military attacks.


Кампания, операция.



The trips often involve a lot of walking.

There are a lot of risks involved.

I prefer teaching methods that actively involve students in learning.


To involve /ɪnˈvɒlv/

To involve - If a situation or activity involves something, that thing is a necessary part of it (B1);

to make someone be part of an activity or process (B2).


Включать, вовлекать


To seek advice/a solution.

[ + to do sth ] They are seeking to change the rules.


To seek /siːk/  (sought, sought) [sɔt]

To seek -  to try to find or get something (B2); to try to do something. 



Пытаться, добиваться


The cancellation of the new road project represents a victory for protesters.

The union represents over 200 employees.

The crosses on the map represent churches.

To represent /ˌreprɪˈzent/ ​

To represent - to be a sign or symbol of something (B2);

to officially speak or do something for someone else because they have asked you to.