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Flashcards in Male Pathology - Pathoma Deck (53)
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1

Hypospadias

Urethra opens on inferior (ventral) surface of penis

Failure or urethral folds to close

2

Epispadias

Opening of urethra on superior/dorsal surface

Abnormal position of genital tubercle

Associated w/ bladder extrophy

3

Conydloma Acuminatum

Benign warty growth

HPV types 6 or 11

Koilocytic change

4

Lymphogranuloma Venerum

Necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of inguinal lymphatics and LN

STD: Chlamydia trachomatis (L1-L3)

Heals with fibrosis; perianal involvement - rectal strictures

5

Risk factors for Squamous cell CA of penis

High risk HPV

Lack of circumcision

6

What are the 3 precursor lesions for squamous cell CA of the penis?

 

  1. Bowen disease
  2. Erythorplasia of Queyrat
  3. Bowenoid papulosis

7

Bowen disease

In situ CA of the penile shaft or scrotum that presents as leukoplakia

8

Erythroplasia of Queyrat

In situ CA on the glans that presents as erythroplakia

9

Bowenoid papulosis

In situ CA - Reddish papules 

Younger patients

**Does not progress to invasive CA**

10

Cryptoorchidism

Failure of testicle to descend into scrotal sac

 

11

What is the most common congenital male reproductive abnormality? What are complications? (3)

Cryptoorchidism

*most resolve spontaneously*

Testicular atrophy w/ infertility and ↑ risk for seminoma

12

What are the most common causes of Orchitis?

Chlamydia trachomatis (D-K) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (sexually active)

E. coli and Pseudomonas (older)

Mumps

Autoimmune orchitis: granulomas (vs. TB)

 

13

Testicular Torsion

Twisting of spermatic cord 

Compress vein - hermorrhagic infarction

Adolescents: sudden pain, absent cremaster

14

Varicocele

Dilation of spermatic vein due to impaired drainage

Scrotal swelling, bag of worms

15

What can cause a varicocele?

Usually left-sided - drains into L renal vein

Left-sided Renal Cell CA - invades renal vein

 

16

What is a complication of a varicocele?

Infertility - warm testicle

17

Hydrocele is a collection of fluid within the _____________.

Tunica Vaginalis

18

Hydrocele is assocated with ____________ of processus vaginalis in infants or ____________________ in adults.

Incomplete closure of processus vaginalis = infants

Blockage of lymphatic drainage = adults

19

What two cell types can testicular tumors arise from?

Germ cell

Sex-cord stroma

20

How do testicular tumors present?

Firm, painless, testicular mass, cannot be transilluminated

Not biopsied due to risk of seeding scrotum

21

What is the most common type of testicular tumor?

Germ Cell Tumor

22

Germ Cell Tumors

Ages 15-40

Cyrptorchidism & Klinefelter Syndrome

Seminoma and Non-seminoma

23

What are the type of germ cell tumor?

Seminoma - germ cell

__________________________________

Teratoma - fetal

Embyronal CA - fetal

Choriocarcinoma - placenta

Yolk Sac

 

24

What are characteristics of a Seminoma

Metastasize late

Respond to radiotherapy

Good prognosis

25

What are charcteristics of nonseminomas?

Variable repsonse to treatment

Mets early

26

 Seminoma

Malignant tumor of large cells w/ clear cytoplasm/central nuclei

Homogenous mass w/ no hemorrhage or necrossis

May produce β-hCG

 

27

Embryonal CA

Hemorrhage mass w/ necrosis

Immature, primative cells - may form glands

Aggressive w/ early hematogenous spread

**CTX may result in differentiation**

↑AFP of β-hCG

28

Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor

Schiller Duval bodies

AFP

Children!

29

Choriocarcioma

Tumor of syncytiotrophoblasts (↑β-hCG) and cytotrophoblasts (absent villi)

Spreads early via blood

 

30

What can ↑β-hCG lead to?

Hyperthyroidism (TSH-R)

Gynecomastia (FSH/LH R)

α-subunit is similar