Urethra opens on inferior (ventral) surface of penis
Failure or urethral folds to close
Opening of urethra on superior/dorsal surface
Abnormal position of genital tubercle
Associated w/ bladder extrophy
Benign warty growth
HPV types 6 or 11
Necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of inguinal lymphatics and LN
STD: Chlamydia trachomatis (L1-L3)
Heals with fibrosis; perianal involvement - rectal strictures
Risk factors for Squamous cell CA of penis
High risk HPV
Lack of circumcision
What are the 3 precursor lesions for squamous cell CA of the penis?
- Bowen disease
- Erythorplasia of Queyrat
- Bowenoid papulosis
In situ CA of the penile shaft or scrotum that presents as leukoplakia
Erythroplasia of Queyrat
In situ CA on the glans that presents as erythroplakia
In situ CA - Reddish papules
**Does not progress to invasive CA**
Failure of testicle to descend into scrotal sac
What is the most common congenital male reproductive abnormality? What are complications? (3)
*most resolve spontaneously*
Testicular atrophy w/ infertility and ↑ risk for seminoma
What are the most common causes of Orchitis?
Chlamydia trachomatis (D-K) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (sexually active)
E. coli and Pseudomonas (older)
Autoimmune orchitis: granulomas (vs. TB)
Twisting of spermatic cord
Compress vein - hermorrhagic infarction
Adolescents: sudden pain, absent cremaster
Dilation of spermatic vein due to impaired drainage
Scrotal swelling, bag of worms
What can cause a varicocele?
Usually left-sided - drains into L renal vein
Left-sided Renal Cell CA - invades renal vein
What is a complication of a varicocele?
Infertility - warm testicle
Hydrocele is a collection of fluid within the _____________.
Hydrocele is assocated with ____________ of processus vaginalis in infants or ____________________ in adults.
Incomplete closure of processus vaginalis = infants
Blockage of lymphatic drainage = adults
What two cell types can testicular tumors arise from?
How do testicular tumors present?
Firm, painless, testicular mass, cannot be transilluminated
Not biopsied due to risk of seeding scrotum
What is the most common type of testicular tumor?
Germ Cell Tumor
Germ Cell Tumors
Cyrptorchidism & Klinefelter Syndrome
Seminoma and Non-seminoma
What are the type of germ cell tumor?
Seminoma - germ cell
Teratoma - fetal
Embyronal CA - fetal
Choriocarcinoma - placenta
What are characteristics of a Seminoma
Respond to radiotherapy
What are charcteristics of nonseminomas?
Variable repsonse to treatment
Malignant tumor of large cells w/ clear cytoplasm/central nuclei
Homogenous mass w/ no hemorrhage or necrossis
May produce β-hCG
Hemorrhage mass w/ necrosis
Immature, primative cells - may form glands
Aggressive w/ early hematogenous spread
**CTX may result in differentiation**
↑AFP of β-hCG
Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor
Schiller Duval bodies
Tumor of syncytiotrophoblasts (↑β-hCG) and cytotrophoblasts (absent villi)
Spreads early via blood
What can ↑β-hCG lead to?
Gynecomastia (FSH/LH R)
α-subunit is similar