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Flashcards in male physiology - Tanner stages Deck (31):
1

types of androgens

1. testosterone
2. dihydrotestosterone (DTH)
3. androstenedione

2

androgens - source

DHT and testosterone --> testis
androstenedione --> adrenals

3

androgens - potency of each (in order)

1. DHT
2. Testosterone
3. androstenedione

4

testosterone action

1. differentiation of internal genitalia except prostate (epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles)
2. Growth spurt (penis, seminal vesivels, sperm, muscles, RBCs
3. deeping voice
4. Closing of epiphyseal plates (via estrogen converted from testosterone)
5. libido

5

hormones- ephipheseal plates closing in males

estrogen bia testosterone conversion

6

dihydrotestosterone (DTH) action

early --> differentiation of penis, scrotum prostate
late --> prostate growth, balding, sebaceous gland activity

7

testosterone is converted to DHT by ...., which is inhibited by

5-a reductase
inhibited by finasteride

8

production of estrogens in males

androgens are converted to estrogen by cytochrome P-450 aroatase (adipose tissue and testis)

9

exogenous testosterone action on axon

inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis --> decreased intratesticular testosterone -->decreased testicular size --> azoospermia

10

azoospermia

absence of motile (and hence viable) sperm in the semen.

11

spermatogenesis increases at ... with ....

puberty with spermatogonia

12

spermatogenesis - full development takes (time)

2 months

13

gametes - types/definition/origin

types: 1. Oocytes 2. Spermatozoa
they are descendants of primordial germ cells that originate in the wall of yolk sac of the embryo --> migrate into the gonadal cells

14

spermatogenesis - location

seminiferous tubules

15

phases of spermatogenesis

1. Spermatocytogenesis
2. Meiosis
3. Spermiogenesis

16

spermatogenesis - spernaticytogenesis?

primordial cells (2N,2C) yolk sac to testis (wk 6th) --> spermatogonium (2N, 2C) -> remain dormant until puberty

17

spermatogenesis - meiosis

at puberty --> through Blood testis barrier --> meiosis --> 1ry spermatocytes (2N,4C) (46 sister chromatids X-X, Y-Y) --> 2ry spermatocytes (23 sister chromatids, X-X or Y-Y)
--> meiosis II --> spermatid (1N,1C)

18

spermatogenesis - spermiogenesis

spermatid --> mature spermatozoon
(loss of cytoplasmic contains, gain of acrosomal cap)

19

spermatogenesis - all cells and DNA status

primordial cells (2N,2C) --> spermatogonia (2N,2C) --> type B spermatogonia (2N,2C) --> 1ry spermatocytes (2N,4C) --> 2ry spermatocytes (1N,2C) --> spermatids (1N,2C)

20

mature spermatozoon dna status and structure

- 1N,1C
- Head with acrosome, and nucleus in head
- neck, and then middle piece and tail

21

impaired tail motility - seen in/results

seen in ciliary dyskinesia/kartegener
infertility

22

Tanner stages is a

a scale of physical development in children, adolescents and adults.

23

Tanner stages is assigned independently to

independently to:
1. genitalia
2. pubic hair
3. breast
(person can have Tanner 2 genitalia, Tunner stage 3 pubic hair

24

Tanner stages - stage I (male and female)

PRE-pubertal
female: no sexual hair, flat appearing chest with raised nipple
male: no sexual hair

25

Tanner stages - stage II (male and female)

female: pubic hair appears (pubarche), Breast bub forms (thelarche)
male: pubic hair appears (pubarche), testicular enlargement

26

Tanner stages - stage III (male and female)

female: coarsening of pubic hair, breast enlarges, mound forms
male: coarsening of pubic hair, increase penis size/length

27

Tanner stages - stage IV (male and female)

female: Coarse hair across pubis, sparing thigh, breast enlarges, raised areola, mound on mound
male: Coarse hair across pubis, sparing thigh, increase penis width/glans

28

Tanner stages - stage V (male and female)

female: Coarse hair across pubis and medial thigh, adult breast contour, areola flattens
male: Coarse hair across pubis and medial thigh, penis and testis enlarge to adult size

29

Thelarche?

onset of female breast development

30

Pubarche?

the first appearance of pubic hair in a child

31

Prostate - lymph drainage

Internal iliac