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Fundamentals > Malnutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Malnutrition Deck (27):
1

Healthy eating must: (3)

Be sufficient in energy and essential nutrients
Not have excessive amounts of toxic compounds
Not lead to over nutrition and obesity

2

What is food intake affected by?(4)

Availability
Economic limitations
Custom and dietary prejudices
Palatability and ease of preparation

3

Malnutrition classification by BMI in adults (5)

> 20 normal
18.5 - 20 marginal malnutrition
17 - 18.49 mild malnutrition
16-16.9 moderate malnutrition
Under 16 is severe

4

Symptoms of malnutrition in adults (7)

Fatigue
Depression
Frequently getting infections
Taking a long time to recover from infections
Delayed wound healing
Poor concentration
Difficulty keeping warm

5

Phases of starvation (4)

Post absorptive phase
Gluconeogenic phase
Period of adaptation
Adapted starvation

6

Post absorptive phase

No dietary energy substrates entering body

7

Gluconeogenic phase

Last until second or third day

8

Period of adaptation

Lasts up to 3 weeks

9

Adapted starvation

Last until re-feeding or death

10

Blood substrates during starvation (3)

Glucose gradually deceases
NEFAs increased
Ketones increase

11

Why is malnutrition more detrimental to children?(2)

More sensitive to deficient intake of energy and protein
Prolonged deficiency can permanently alter development

12

Classifications of malnutrition (3)

Weight for age (underweight)
Weight for height (wasting)
Height for age (stunting)

13

Weight for age

Classified according to the weight of the child relative to a normal child of the same age

14

Weight for height

Classified according to the weight of the child relative to a normal child of the same height

15

Height for age

Classified according to height relative to a normal child of the same age

16

Highest population of wasted children

Asia

17

Which type of countries have the highest child obesity prevalence?

Middle income

18

What percentage of death in young children are associated with malnutrition?

53

19

Infection-malnutrition cycle (4)

Inadequate diet

Weight loss/growth faltering/lowered immunity

Increased indecence, severity and duration of disease

Loss of appetite/malabsorption/increased nutritional requirements

20

Marasmus characteristics (6)

Infancy
Severe deprivation of all nutrients
Chronic protein energy malnutrition
No oedema
No fatty liver
Good appetite possible

21

Kwashiorkor characteristics (5)

Older infants
Inadequate protein intake
Acute PEM
Oedema
Fatty liver
Anorexia

22

Contributing factors to kwashiorkor (5)

Low protein intake
Poor adaptation of protein and lipid metabolism to food deprivation
Genetics
Free radical damage to membranes
Changes in gut biome

23

Define healthy eating

Consumption of food of sufficient quantity and quality to maintain good health

24

Overall causes of malnutrition can be(3):

Socioeconomic factors limiting food availability
Physical illness
Mental illness

25

Symptoms of kwashiorkor (4)

Oedema
Skin rash
Enlargement of liver due to fat accumulation (hepatomegaly)
Discoloured hair

26

Micronutrient deficienes

...

27

What is the issue with using weight for age to classify malnutrition?

Fails to differentiate between long standing failure to grow and acute weight loss